Engine engineering

How Does Electric Vehicle Work?

The electric vehicle is in fashion. The great pollution of the Spanish mobile park has led to the creation of regulations that prevent the circulation of certain vehicles, so people have started to switch to electric vehicles.

How does electric vehicle work?

The State and the electricity trading companies are also adding to this fashion, helping with the purchase and use of these types of vehicles with subsidies and purchase aids or special electricity rate.

While we know that they work with electricity (that's why they are said to be “pluggable” the truth is that we don't know how electric cars work. 

Electric Vehicle Operation

These types of vehicles are powered by one or more electric motors that are powered by the energy stored in a rechargeable battery .

These batteries are charged if we plug them into an outlet , but also thanks to a self-regeneration system .

Electric Car Parts

Electric Motor

He is responsible for the transformation of electricity into mechanical energy that allows the movement of the vehicle . By braking systems, the engine can also work in reverse.

The main characteristics of this type of engines is that it emits no noise or odors or heat.

In addition, these types of engines are simpler than combustion engines .

The electric motor has several parts:

  • The charger: receives the electrical power from the outlet and adapts it to direct current so that it can be stored in the battery.
  • E l investor: is the one that transforms the direct current three - phase AC, which is used by the engine, stereo, lighting system, the dashboard ...
  • The controller: is responsible for managing electricity as needed, either to the motor, music or batteries. Makes operation safe.

The Batteries

It is the most expensive part of an electric vehicle. They depend on the autonomy, performance and final price of the vehicle. 

The higher its capacity, the greater the number of kilometers the vehicle can travel in each recharge.

This is because the battery stores the energy (in direct current) that comes through the charger.

The most used are lithium .


They transform the alternating current that comes from the outlet into the direct current that can be stored in the batteries. They balance the voltage at which the motor and battery work.

Advantages of the Electric Vehicle

  • As we have said, the electric motor is simpler than the combustion engine, so its maintenance is lower.
  • The cost of the kilometer in terms of kilowatt hours is cheaper than a liter of fuel from a gasoline or diesel engine.
  • They have a "zero" label of the General Traffic Directorate.
  • They are allowed to move through those areas that are restricted or that are under a pollution protocol.
  • They do not pay the registration tax .
  • In cities like Madrid and Barcelona they pay only 25% of the traffic tax.
  • The parking is free in the SER area in Madrid and Barcelona area AREA.
  • You can use the Ecoviat tolls in Barcelona for free

    Disadvantages of the Electric Vehicle

    • The price of the vehicle itself is higher than that of a traditional one. Although there are many aids and discounts for your purchase that can compensate for the purchase of an electric vehicle .
    • Their autonomy is usually reduced , so they are not very advisable for medium or long-term trips.
    • It is almost basic to have a garage where to place a private charging point.
    • The charges usually last a long time , unless you use an ultra fast whose consumption is higher and, therefore, more expensive. A charge on a normal outlet in your home can take up to ten hours.
    • The network of chargers in the city and on the road is limited.

    Published: February 20, 2020
    Last review: February 20, 2020