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Current

Direct current motor

Direct current motor

A direct current motor (DC motor), or simply a continuous motor or direct current motor, is a rotating electric malternating currenthine that transforms electrical energy in the form of direct current into mechanical energy through electromagnetic interalternating currenttions.

Virtually all electric motors are reversible, that is, they can transform mechanical energy into electrical energy functioning as dynamos. direct current motors base their operation on the Lorentz law, also called Laplalternating currente's law when it is applied to a conductor, as is the case of motors.

Applications…

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Universal motor

Universal motor

The universal motor is a type of electric motor that can operate both with direct current and with single-phase alternating current.

Its constitution is similar to that of a direct current series motor, although with some modifications:

The polar nuclei, and the entire magnetic circuit, are built with silicon iron plates isolated and stacked to reduce energy losses by parasitic currents. These currents occur because of magnetic flux variations when connected to an alternating current network.

It has a lower number of turns in the inductor to not magnetically saturate…

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Universal motor operation

Universal motor operation

The current carrying excitation winding in the stator generates a magnetic field, which is amplified by the iron sheet package and grouped into defined poles. The same happens in the winding of the armature coil downstream. Depending on how the poles are established, this magnetic field created by the stator of the universal motor causes the rotor to drag behind or push it in front of it. In this case, the coils must be inverted in each half revolution (for machines with a pair of poles), for which a switch is necessary.

Considering a "single pole" version, both magnetic fields are perpendicular…

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Altern current motor

Altern current motor

Altern current motors are electric motors that are powered by alternating current. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical rotation energy through the mutual action of magnetic fields.

There is a wide variety of altern current motors, among which the following basic types stand out:

  • The universal motor that can also be direct current.
  • The synchronous motor. In this type of electric motor the speed of rotation is constant and depends on the frequency.
  • The asynchronous motor. It is a three-phase motor.

In some cases, such as…

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Currents of Foucault

Currents of Foucault

Foucault currents are the currents induced in masses of conducting metal that are immersed in a variable magnetic field or that, in motion, through a constant or variable magnetic field. In any case, it is the variation of the magnetic flux that generates these currents. The phenomenon was discovered by the French physicist Jean Bernard Léon Foucault in 1851.

In high frequency: using cores with magnetic materials that have low electrical conductivity (such as ferrite).

Foucault currents create energy losses through the Joule effect. More specifically, these currents transform…

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Electric motor

Electric motor

The electric motor is an electrotechnical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. That is, when the electric motor is connected to the proper power source, it begins to rotate, which also begins to rotate the machine or the machine associated with it. That is, it works inversely to the electric generator, which produces electrical energy with mechanical energy.

The electric motor was made possible thanks to the discoveries of Franz Ernst Neumann and James Clerk Maxwell. His discoveries were published in the years 1841 and 1873.

The electric motors can be…

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Types of electric motors

Types of electric motors

The electric motors can be distinguished between them according to the type of power supply:

  • Electric motors of direct current. The DC electric motor can be, in turn, a permanent induction motor or a continuous induction motor. In addition to these more general classifications there are also other more modern types of engines such as stepper motors and linear motors.
  • Electric motors of alternating current. The AC motor can be classified as universal motor, synchronous motor or asynchronous motor.

The classic division is between direct current (DC) and alternating…

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Joule effect

Joule effect

The Joule effect, also called Joule's law, is the thermal manifestation of electrical resistance. If electricity circulates in an electric conductor, a part of the kinetic energy of the electrons is transformed into heat due to the shock that the electrons experience with the molecules of the conductor through which they circulate, which increases the temperature of the conductor. It is named in honor of the English physicist James Prescott Joule.

Definition of the Joule effect:

The amount of heat energy produced by an electric current is directly proportional to the square of…

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What is direct current?

What is direct current?

The direct current is a type of electrical current on the flow direction of the flow of electric charge does not vary. The load flow occurs through a conductor such as a metal wire, but could also be established through a semiconductor, an insulator or even vacuum as in a cathode ray tube . In this type of electric current electrical charges always flow in the same direction, being a hallmark front alternating current. A synonym is unused direct current galvanic current.

The first commercial power grid, developed by Thomas Edison in the late nineteenth century, using direct current.…

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What is an electromagnet?

What is an electromagnet?

An electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by the flow of an electric current. If the flow of electrical current also disappears magnetic field disappears and the effect arising.

Characteristics of electromagnets

The electromagnet is a simple piece of metal wire wound in a coil. A cylindrical coil with the wire coiled helix-shaped (like a corkscrew corkscrew-shaped) generally named solenoid; a solenoid would be a closed toroid.

May occur if stronger magnetic fields within the coil becomes a core of a ferromagnetic or paramagnetic material,…

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What is electricity?

What is electricity?

The electric current is the flow of electric charge passing through a material per unit of time. Moving electrical charges produce a magnetic field.

It is called electrical charge to the physical property that possess certain subatomic particles (like the protons and the electrons). This property manifests manifested through the forces of repulsion and attraction that exist between them by means of electromagnetic fields. Protons have a positive charge and negatively charged electrons. This assignment of charges was performed arbitrarily.

Anyway, when we talk about electric current,…

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Commutator

Commutator

The commutator is a component of an electric motor formed by strips of hard electrolytic copper with insulating material in the middle (formerly micanite, nowadays plastic). The assembly is insulated on the rotor shaft and the copper blades are connected to the anchor windings. Permanently installed carbon brushes make contact with the collector and provide power to the anchor windings.

A commutator is a rotary electrical switch in certain types of electric motors and electric generators that periodically changes the direction of the current between the rotor and the external circuit.…

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Triphasic current. What is it?

Triphasic current. What is it?

Definition of three-phase current

A three-phase current system consists of three single-phase alternating currents of the same frequency and amplitude (and therefore, effective value) that present a certain phase difference between them, around 120 °, and are given in a certain order.

Characteristics of the three-phase current

Each of the single-phase currents that make up the system is designated with the phase name.

A three-phase voltage system is said to be balanced when its currents are equal and are symmetrically out of phase. When any of the above conditions…

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Squirrel cage rotor

Squirrel cage rotor

A squirrel cage rotor is the rotating part of the common squirrel cage induction motor. The squirrel-cage motor is a type of AC motor.

This type of rotor consists of a cylinder of steel laminations, with aluminum or copper conductors embedded in its surface. In operation, the non-rotating stator winding is connected to an alternating current power source; the alternating current in the stator produces a rotating magnetic field. The rotor winding has a current induced by the stator field, and produces its own magnetic field. The interaction of the two magnetic field sources produces torque…

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How does a direct current motor work?

How does a direct current motor work?

Electric motors of direct current work thanks to the properties of the magnets and to the magnetic field that is generated when circulating an electric current by a conductor.

As we well know, the main characteristic of magnets is that they have a south pole (negative) and a north pole (positive). In two different magnets the poles of different sign attract each other and the poles of the same sign repel each other.

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Galvanic cell

Galvanic cell

The galvanic cell is a device consisting of two different metals connected by means of a salt bridge or a porous disk located between each half cell. It receives its name in honor to Luigi Galvani.

The voltaic cell, invented in 1800 by Alessandro Volta is similar to the galvanic cell. These discoveries paved the way for electric batteries.

The metal of a galvanic cell dissolves in the electrolyte at two different speeds. The metals become positive ions in dissolving and the electrons remain in the undissolved part. As a result, the metal acquires a net negative charge as the electrolyte…

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Asynchronous motor

Asynchronous motor

An asynchronous motor is an electric motor powered by alternating current. It is, therefore, what we call an AC motor. This type of engine is also known as an induction motor.

The asynchronous motor is based on the currents induced in the rotor from the rotating magnetic field of the stator. That's why it's called an induction machine. As to be able to induce an electric current in the rotor it is necessary that the rotor is subjected to a variation of the magnetic flux generated by the stator at the frequency of power, or synchronism, the rotor is demagnetized when it reaches the synchronism,…

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Internal combustion engines, external and electric

Internal combustion engines, external and electric

In this website we try to explain the operation of the main types of engines from a theoretical point of view. We present schematically the parts, operating cycles and characteristics of the following types of engines:

  • The thermal engine or internal combustion engine. Inside the thermal engines we explain the gasoline engine (or otto engine) and the diesel engine).
  • The electric motor. This engine has undergone a great evolution throughout history and right now is one of the most used types of engines and with more projection of the future. We will analyze direct current…

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What is alternating current?

What is alternating current?

The alternating current is a type of electrical current that is characterized by change over time, either in intensity or direction at regular intervals.

The voltage varies between maximum and minimum values cyclically, the value of positive voltage is half the time (semicicle semiperíode positive or positive) and the other half negative. This means that half the time the current flows in one direction, the other half the time the other way.

The most common way to curl follows a trigonometric function sine type, since it is the most efficient and practical to produce electricity…

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Series motor

Series motor

The series motor is a type of electric direct current motor in which the armature and the inductor debited or excitation are connected in series. That is why the excitation current or the inductor is also the current of the induced absorbed by the motor.

This type of direct current motor is also called the series excitation motor. The constitution of the electric motor in series is that of having all the elements of the circuit in series, induced windings and inductors. The series engine is characterized by having a high moment of rotation at start-up and its speeds very variable depending…

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Rotor of an electric motor. What is it?

Rotor of an electric motor. What is it?

The rotor is the component that turns on an electric machine. The same definition is valid whether the electric machine is an electric motor or an electric generator. The rotor together with its together with its fixed counterpart, the stator, form the fundamental set for the transmission of power in motors and electrical machines in general.

The rotor is formed by an axis that supports a set of coils wound on a magnetic core. This axis rotates inside a magnetic field created either by a magnet, an electromagnet or by passing through another set of coils, wound on some polar pieces.…

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Linear motor

Linear motor

A linear motor is an asynchronous electric motor that has been developed so that instead of generating a rotating torque it generates a linear displacement. To get it distributes your stator and its rotor distributed differently.

The most common mode of operation is like a Lorentz actuator. In this mode the applied force is linearly proportional to the electric current and to the magnetic field

Linear motors are divided into two main groups:

  • Slow acceleration linear motors used in Sky Train transport, Maglev, etc.
  • Quick acceleration linear motors used in…

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Electric generator

Electric generator

An electric generator is a machine that transforms rotational mechanical energy into electrical energy. In this sense, it works in the opposite sense of how an electric motor works.

An electric generator is any device capable of maintaining an electrical potential difference (voltage) between two points, called poles or terminals. Electric generators are electrical machines designed to transform mechanical energy into electrical. This transformation is achieved by the action of a magnetic field on the electric conductors arranged in coils on a sheet metal frame. If a relative movement…

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Types of engines

Types of engines

A motor or motor is a machine designed to convert a form of energy into mechanical energy . An engine can be classified into a category according to two criteria: the form of energy it accepts to create movement and the type of movement it produces.

As a general rule, engines have an axle, which in rotary offset and through mechanical devices such as drive gears. The exceptions are rocket motors and linear motors . Nowadays, combustion engines…

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History of the electric motor

History of the electric motor

The conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy by means of electro-magnetism was first demonstrated by the British scientist Michael Faraday in 1821. In his pilot he made the end of a free-hanging contact conductor with a pool of mercury in the that a permanent magnet was placed. At the moment when a current flows through the conductor, the driver performs a rotary movement around the magnet. In this way we obtain kinetic energy.

This electric motor is the simplest version of a homopolar motor. An improved form of this is the Barlow wheel. Due to their primitive construction,…

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