Diesel fuel is a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons, obtained by fractional distillation of crude oil and used as fuel for diesel engines, for heating or for the production of electricity.
It is often inappropriately called naphtha, which is distinguished by a process of better refining and for different uses.
Diesel fuel finds its first applications in the mechanical field between 1893 and 1897, when in the workshops MAN (Maschinenfabrik Augsburg Nuremberg) of Augusta, Rudolf Diesel made the first investigations that led to the invention of the diesel engine. Its name derives from…
Diesel engines have several advantages over other internal combustion engines: Advantages related to diesel engine fuel
The fuel of a diesel engine has a higher energy density and a smaller volume of fuel is required to perform a specific amount of work.
Diesel engines inject fuel directly into the combustion chamber, have no air intake restrictions other than air filters and intake pipes and have no vacuum in the intake manifold to add parasitic load and pump losses to push the pistons down against the vacuum of the intake system. Cylinder filling is aided by atmospheric…
The Otto engine and the diesel engine are two types of thermal engines. These are two types of endothermic engines that, through thermodynamic reactions, convert the internal energy of the fuel into mechanical work. However, there are certain differences between them.
The most important difference is found in its theoretical cycle. The Otto engine operates according to the Otto cycle by spark ignition while the diesel engine is controlled according to the diesel cycle by compression ignition.
The other important difference is in the ignition of the fuel. In the Otto engine the ignition…
Diesel engines are also known as compression ignition engines. The diesel engine is a type of internal combustion engine that uses gas oil as fuel for the diesel thermodynamic cycle.
The actual performance of diesel cylinder thermal engines is between 35% and 40% and is widely used to propel vehicles.
Diesel engines can operate with 4-cycle and 2-cycle cycles. 2-stroke engines do not consume more fuel than engines with 4-stroke cycles, because the cylinder is swept with pure air and not with the fuel mixture. This is the reason why there is no loss of fuel through the exhaust.…
The theoretical diesel cycle is the theoretical cycle of a diesel engine, also known as a compression ignition engine.
The theoretical cycle of a thermal engine is a theoretical approximation of its operation to calculate its performance.
The cycle of an internal combustion engine is constituted by the physical and chemical transformations suffered by the fuel during its passage inside the engine.
The study of a real cycle taking into account all the numerous variables, represents a very complex problem. For this reason, it is usually simplified by resorting to theoretical…
The diesel engine was invented by Rudolf Diesel, in the year 1893. Rudolf Diese was a German engineer, employed by the firm MAN.
Rudolf Diesel studied high thermal efficiency engines, with the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion engines. Diese's goal was to replace the old steam engines that were inefficient, very heavy and expensive. First steps before reaching the diesel engine
In 1806, brothers Claude and Nicéphore Niépce developed the first known internal combustion engine and the first fuel injection system. The two brothers tested systems…
An oil refinery is an industrial plant, of the oil raw material by purification and distillation under normal pressure and under vacuum in fractions with a defined boiling range transferred. The additional refinement of the boiling cuts is done by methods such as extraction or chemical cleaning methods. To increase the quality of products, such as their octane number, conversion processes such as isomerization or catalytic reforming are used. In addition, additives are added to products that improve or suppress certain properties.
Higher value products are obtained, such as gasoline,…
Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel, was born in Paris on March 18, 1858 and died in the English Channel on September 30, 1913. Diesel was a German engineer.
Rudolf Diesel built himself a place in the history of the engine by being the inventor of the high-performance combustion engine that bears his name, the diesel engine.
The diesel engine is applicable to locomotion. This engine was presented at the international fair in Paris as the first engine that used mineral oil as a fuel and later called a combustion engine, later named after its inventor.
The diesel engine works according…
The compression ignition engine is the diesel or diesel cycle engine. This qualification refers to the way fuel combustion starts inside the piston.
In this type of motor, what enters the chamber initially is only air; the diesel is injected more or less near top dead center. The fuel enters the liquid state, but it is dense. The dense fuel must be vaporized, mixed with the air and reach the conditions of pressure and temperature appropriate to ignite. The time that this process takes is the self-ignition delay and limits the speed at which the engine can turn and, therefore, its maximum…
Between real and theoretical diesel cycles there are differences and similarities in the form and in the values of pressures and temperatures. Differences that also appear in the otto cycle. Some of these similarities correspond to those of the otto cycle; for example, the similarities due to the variation of the specific heats, to the loss of heat and to the opening time of the exhaust valve.
Others differ in part and are caused by dissociation and loss by pumping. Finally, one is peculiar to the diesel engine, namely; the one concerning that the combustion is not verified at constant…
The endothermic engine, also known as internal combustion engine. The main characteristic of this type of alternative engines is that through the laws of thermodynamics it is able to take advantage of the energy contained in the fuel to obtain a mechanical work.
The endothermic engine is a type of alternative engine by the way of converting chemical energy into mechanical energy. The most popular endothermic engines are the Otto engine or gasoline engine that operates according to the Otto cycle and the diesel engine, which operates according to the diesel cycle. Meaning of the…
To compare cycle just discussed, it is necessary to refer some of the factors whose value depends on the shape and surface, such as: the compression ratio, the maximum pressure, the amount of heat supplied and the heat subtracted useful work.
The following figure are plotted the curves of the ideal thermal performance variations by varying the ratio of co
RINTING for three cycles: Otto, Diesel and Sabathé. For Diesel cycles and Sabathé has chosen a constant pressure…
The heat engines can be classified in many different ways. Then classify heat engines, taking into account six different aspects:
Types of heat engines depending on where combustion takes place
- They Depending on where is combustion.
- Depending on the fuel used and the type of lighting.
- Depending on the movement of moving parts.
- Depending on how realizes the cycle.
- Depending on the number of cylinders
- Depending on the arrangement of the cylinders
Depending on where combustion takes place two types:
The actual operating conditions of diesel engines differ markedly from those that are represented in the ideal Otto and Diesel cycles. For diesel engines, the combustion process transformational approaches a constant pressure only in case of unusually large motors and slow.
The actual plot shows that, under normal conditions, the combustion takes place, in Diesel engines, according to a process that approximates a transformational combustion and a constant volume at pressures n…
Since the first developments of the alternative engine with the steam engine, its use has been growing exponentially. The appearance of internal combustion thermal engines has helped to accelerate its popularity.
However, the characteristics of the alternative engine entails a series of advantages and disadvantages that we intend to study.
From the first alternative engines such as the steam engine or the stirling engine to the current thermal engines the characteristics of this engine have varied a lot. Although the operating principle for the generation of mechanical energy is…
Heat engines are a type of alternative engines. Actually, they are the most popular alternative engines.
This type of engine uses the thermal energy caused by the combustion of a fuel (usually gasoil or gasoline) to convert it into mechanical energy. Heat Machines
The concept of a thermal engine is often confused with that of a thermal engine. These terms are related but not exactly the same. A thermal machine is a device or system that works by establishing exchanges of heat and work with its environment. To achieve this, the machine transforms a substance through a cyclic…
It is necessary to know the cycle, not only to check if the thermal engine operation is correct, but also to determine the value of the forces acting on the engine components. When in the design phase is to establish the dimensions of the engine components, proceed to the calculation of stresses based on an expected cycle. This similarity can be drawn by motor cycles parangonables with that study, but also obtained a simple and fast way, ore than with a sufficient approximation, using the following method is set forth by way of example and recommend as applicable to the case engine 4-stroke…
The development of the Stirling engine started with the aim of being an alternative to the machine of value due to certain advantages that it had with respect to the then popular steam engine.
Over time, certain disadvantages compared to internal combustion engines have left the Stirling engine in the background. Advantages of the Stirling engine compared to internal combustion engines
The main advantages of a Stirling engine compared to an otto engine, a diesel engine or a steam engine are:
- The maintenance facility
- They are quieter engines
In this website we try to explain the operation of the main types of engines from a theoretical point of view. We present schematically the parts, operating cycles and characteristics of the following types of engines:
- The thermal engine or internal combustion engine. Inside the thermal engines we explain the gasoline engine (or otto engine) and the diesel engine).
- The electric motor. This engine has undergone a great evolution throughout history and right now is one of the most used types of engines and with more projection of the future. We will analyze direct current…
A four-stroke engine is a type internal combustion engine, an alternative engine. It can work both in diesel cycle and Otto cycle (gasoline engine). It is therefore a thermodynamic and combustion motorcycle.
The most important feature is that you need to perform four strokes of the piston or plunger to complete the cycle. During these 4 races the crankshaft makes two full turns. These four times are: admission, compression, combustion or explosion and escape.
In 1861, the German Otto experimented with his first 4-stroke gas engine. Otto had to abandon the project due to technical…
What is the indicated diagram?
The indicated diagram is the diagram that represents the real cycle of a heat engine (a diesel engine or an Otto engine).
The actual cycle of a thermal engine reflects the effective operating conditions. These conditions are identified with the diagram of average pressures in the cylinder in correspondence to the different positions of the piston. The pressure shown in a mean pressure diagram is the so-called average pressure indicated. Study of the indicated diagram
The actual cycle of a thermal engine is the one that reflects the effective conditions of its operation. These conditions are identified with the diagram of average pressures in the cylinder in correspondence to the different positions of the piston. The pressure shown in a mean pressure diagram is the so-called average pressure indicated.
The indicated diagram is the graph that represents this cycle. Simplified operation of the indicator
The indicator is a device used to obtain the indicated diagram of a thermal engine cycle.
In the indicator of the indicated diagram,…