A motor or motor is a machine designed to convert a form of energy into mechanical energy . An engine can be classified into a category according to two criteria: the form of energy it accepts to create movement and the type of movement it produces.
As a general rule, engines have an axle, which in rotary offset and through mechanical devices such as drive gears. The exceptions are rocket motors and linear motors . Nowadays, combustion engines…
The Otto engine and the diesel engine are two types of thermal engines. These are two types of endothermic engines that, through thermodynamic reactions, convert the internal energy of the fuel into mechanical work. However, there are certain differences between them.
The most important difference is found in its theoretical cycle. The Otto engine operates according to the Otto cycle by spark ignition while the diesel engine is controlled according to the diesel cycle by compression ignition.
The other important difference is in the ignition of the fuel. In the Otto engine the ignition…
In this website we try to explain the operation of the main types of engines from a theoretical point of view. We present schematically the parts, operating cycles and characteristics of the following types of engines:
- The thermal engine or internal combustion engine. Inside the thermal engines we explain the gasoline engine (or otto engine) and the diesel engine).
- The electric motor. This engine has undergone a great evolution throughout history and right now is one of the most used types of engines and with more projection of the future. We will analyze direct current…
The heat engines can be classified in many different ways. Then classify heat engines, taking into account six different aspects:
Types of heat engines depending on where combustion takes place
- They Depending on where is combustion.
- Depending on the fuel used and the type of lighting.
- Depending on the movement of moving parts.
- Depending on how realizes the cycle.
- Depending on the number of cylinders
- Depending on the arrangement of the cylinders
Depending on where combustion takes place two types:
The development of the Stirling engine started with the aim of being an alternative to the machine of value due to certain advantages that it had with respect to the then popular steam engine.
Over time, certain disadvantages compared to internal combustion engines have left the Stirling engine in the background. Advantages of the Stirling engine compared to internal combustion engines
The main advantages of a Stirling engine compared to an otto engine, a diesel engine or a steam engine are:
- The maintenance facility
- They are quieter engines
The Stirling engine is an external combustion thermal engine. Originally it was conceived as an industrial main engine to compete with the steam engine, but in practice, for more than a century it was only used for domestic applications and for low power engines.
The Stirling engine was invented in 1816 by Robert Stirling, a Scottish priest. One of the concerns of the time was the safety of steam engines. Stirling's goal was to get a less dangerous engine than the steam engine.
The operation of the Stirling engine is based on the expansion and contraction of a gas that can be…
The Otto engine is a type of alternative thermal engine that works through the Otto cycle. It is an alternative engine capable of converting the chemical energy of fuel into mechanical energy through a thermodynamic reaction.
Due to the characteristics of this type of thermal engine it can receive several names.
- Gasoline engine. Due to the fuel used.
- Otto Engine. Because it works through the otto cycle.
- Spark ignition engine. Due to the way to start the ignition of the fuel. The ignition starts through a guspira generated by a spark plug.
Heat engines are a type of alternative engines. Actually, they are the most popular alternative engines.
This type of engine uses the thermal energy caused by the combustion of a fuel (usually gasoil or gasoline) to convert it into mechanical energy. Heat Machines
The concept of a thermal engine is often confused with that of a thermal engine. These terms are related but not exactly the same. A thermal machine is a device or system that works by establishing exchanges of heat and work with its environment. To achieve this, the machine transforms a substance through a cyclic…
The Stirling engine applications can be divided into three main categories:
- Mechanical propulsion
- Heating and cooling
- Power generation systems
A Stirling engine is a thermal engine that works by cyclic compression and expansion of air or other gas, the working fluid. During the Stirling cycle there is a net conversion of heat to mechanical work. The Stirling cycle engine also operates in reverse, using a mechanical energy input to drive the heat transfer in a reverse direction (ie, a heat pump or refrigerator). Generation of electrical energy…
Diesel engines have several advantages over other internal combustion engines: Advantages related to diesel engine fuel
The fuel of a diesel engine has a higher energy density and a smaller volume of fuel is required to perform a specific amount of work.
Diesel engines inject fuel directly into the combustion chamber, have no air intake restrictions other than air filters and intake pipes and have no vacuum in the intake manifold to add parasitic load and pump losses to push the pistons down against the vacuum of the intake system. Cylinder filling is aided by atmospheric…
The endothermic engine, also known as internal combustion engine. The main characteristic of this type of alternative engines is that through the laws of thermodynamics it is able to take advantage of the energy contained in the fuel to obtain a mechanical work.
The endothermic engine is a type of alternative engine by the way of converting chemical energy into mechanical energy. The most popular endothermic engines are the Otto engine or gasoline engine that operates according to the Otto cycle and the diesel engine, which operates according to the diesel cycle. Meaning of the…
Diesel engines are also known as compression ignition engines. The diesel engine is a type of internal combustion engine that uses gas oil as fuel for the diesel thermodynamic cycle.
The actual performance of diesel cylinder thermal engines is between 35% and 40% and is widely used to propel vehicles.
Diesel engines can operate with 4-cycle and 2-cycle cycles. 2-stroke engines do not consume more fuel than engines with 4-stroke cycles, because the cylinder is swept with pure air and not with the fuel mixture. This is the reason why there is no loss of fuel through the exhaust.…
A first example of the history of the known from rotary to alternative movement is the crank mechanism. The oldest manual cranks appeared in China during the Han Dynasty (202 BC-220 AD). Several sawmills in Roman Asia and Byzantine Syria during the III-VI centuries AD had a connecting rod mechanism that converted the rotary motion of a water wheel into the linear movement of the saw blades. In 1206, the Arab engineer Al-Jazari invented a crankshaft. Piston motor
A free piston engine is a linear internal combustion engine, in which the movement of the piston is not controlled…
Since the first developments of the alternative engine with the steam engine, its use has been growing exponentially. The appearance of internal combustion thermal engines has helped to accelerate its popularity.
However, the characteristics of the alternative engine entails a series of advantages and disadvantages that we intend to study.
From the first alternative engines such as the steam engine or the stirling engine to the current thermal engines the characteristics of this engine have varied a lot. Although the operating principle for the generation of mechanical energy is…
The diesel engine was invented by Rudolf Diesel, in the year 1893. Rudolf Diese was a German engineer, employed by the firm MAN.
Rudolf Diesel studied high thermal efficiency engines, with the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion engines. Diese's goal was to replace the old steam engines that were inefficient, very heavy and expensive. First steps before reaching the diesel engine
In 1806, brothers Claude and Nicéphore Niépce developed the first known internal combustion engine and the first fuel injection system. The two brothers tested systems…
Steam engines are mechanical devices capable of transforming heat energy into mechanical energy in a rotating axis. This heat energy takes advantage of the energy contained in water vapor at high pressure and temperature.
We consider steam engines all those machines that transform the thermal energy of a fluid into mechanical energy. In general, the fluid must be pre-heated and at the outlet of the steam machine it must be cooled to repeat the process.
Steam machines can be classified into these two types:
- Plunger steam engine
- Turbine steam engine
The reciprocating engine uses the reciprocating motion of one or more pistons to convert the pressure into a working fluid. Generally this work is in the form of rotation movement, that is, we obtain mechanical energy. In the opposite direction we find ourselves with the rotating machines in which the movement of the parts of the machine is already rotating like the turbines or the Wankel engine.
The reciprocating engine is also known as a piston engine. The most common alternative engines are internal combustion engines. These thermal engines are widely used in motor vehicles.
The uses of the steam engine have been changing with the passage of time.
Initially, since the early eighteenth century, steam engines have been used to power a multitude of uses. At first, the steam engine was used as a piston pump. A piston pump is a hydraulic pump that generates movement in it by the movement of a piston.
Subsequently, from the years 1780 began to appear alternative engines. With the alternative motors a new use of the steam engine appears: to give power to the factories and to the industrial one. At the beginning of the 19th century, steam…
In this section we describe the different parts of a thermal engine. Of thermal engines have many types, however we will focus on the diesel engine and the gasoline engine (otto cycle).
Despite being different engines share many parts in common, so the scheme presented will serve to indicate the nomenclature of each element.
The most important elements of internal combustion engines, common to diesel and explosion engines, we classify them in two large groups:
- Fixed elements of a heat engine: block, cylinder head, crankcase.
- Moving parts of a heat engine:…
A steam engine is a device that produces mechanical energy through the use of water vapor. In particular, thermal energy is transformed into mechanical energy by means of steam. Heat is typically produced by burning fossil fuels, particularly coal, but it can also come from wood, hydrocarbons or nuclear reactions. Description of steam engines
An essential part of the system that includes the steam engine is the steam generator, or the boiler. In the boiler water vapor is obtained by the administration of heat to liquid water. The steam is then sent to the engine, which can be…
The operating system of the thermal engines is based on a cycle that is constantly repeated. In the case of internal combustion engines this cycle consists of the fuel input (admission), combustion of the fuel, expansion of the cylinder and expulsion of the gases produced. This cycle generates a mechanical movement, if the cycle repeats we will have a constant mechanical movement.
A thermal engine can work through many different cycles. In this section we will explain the different operating cycles that an internal combustion engine can have, the real cycles and the theoretical cycles.…
The engine is a machine capable of transforming a source of energy, which can be in chemical form (in the presence of a fuel), electrical or thermal, into a mechanical energy or mechanically continuous work, typically used in the field application purposes. with the propulsion of various types of vehicles.
In a philosophical sense, an engine is the organism that causes movement or change in other affiliated institutions: Aristotle spoke of motionless motor, a term also picked up by other philosophers, to indicate the cause of the universe, that is, the object or subject which (according…
The theoretical Otto cycle is the ideal cycle of the Otto engine. The Otto engine is also known as a spark ignition engine because the ignition of the fuel is done through a spark caused by a spark plug. It is also known as a gasoline engine because of the type of fuel it uses.
One way to study the performance of this engine is by analyzing its theoretical cycle. The theoretical cycle is an approximation to the real cycle with many simplifications. In practice, there are so many variables that affect the performance of the engine that calculating the actual cycle is practically impossible.…
A four-stroke engine is a type internal combustion engine, an alternative engine. It can work both in diesel cycle and Otto cycle (gasoline engine). It is therefore a thermodynamic and combustion motorcycle.
The most important feature is that you need to perform four strokes of the piston or plunger to complete the cycle. During these 4 races the crankshaft makes two full turns. These four times are: admission, compression, combustion or explosion and escape.
In 1861, the German Otto experimented with his first 4-stroke gas engine. Otto had to abandon the project due to technical…
The first reference of the steam engine is found in the Hellenistic period. Then we talk about experiments to take advantage of the expansion of the compounds due to the change of the liquid phase to the gas (vapor) phase: in particular, the Aeolus cell of the heron. It is a hollow metal sphere filled with water, with the arms tangential to the outlet hole: when water is heated, it vaporizes and the water vapor that comes out of the holes, by rotating the ball itself.
You should also remember the attempts to use Leonardo da Vinci's steam with his car called the Architano. In 1606 the…
Steam engines are used to power a wide variety of self-transport applications. These are a few examples:
- Marine applications, naval transport: steamships, steam boats, steam yachts.
- Applications of the steam engine in the field of rail transport: Steam locomotive.
- Agricultural applications: used as traction motor for agricultural machinery. The first tractors in the sector were steam tractors.
- Road transport: Steam vans, steam buses, steam tricycles, steam car.
- Applications in construction machinery: Steam steamroller, steam excavator…
The bench is a generally metallic piece that supports a set of elements, whether mechanical or electrical.
In engines, the bench is the element that constitutes the lower part of the engine. The function of the bench is to support moving parts. In addition, it serves as a retaining wall for the lubricating oil. It is a very resistant element able to withstand the internal stresses inherent to engine operation. Description of the internal combustion engine mainframe
The shape of a motor bed varies depending on the type of motor. In this section we will describe the bench…
Between real and theoretical diesel cycles there are differences and similarities in the form and in the values of pressures and temperatures. Differences that also appear in the otto cycle. Some of these similarities correspond to those of the otto cycle; for example, the similarities due to the variation of the specific heats, to the loss of heat and to the opening time of the exhaust valve.
Others differ in part and are caused by dissociation and loss by pumping. Finally, one is peculiar to the diesel engine, namely; the one concerning that the combustion is not verified at constant…
The crank shaft is the force that makes the whole rod-crank crank. Its function is to transform rotational movements in alternative movements (combustion engines, for example) or vice versa (Eccentric mechanical presses).
In the heat engine crankshaft collects forces originated during the explosion and turns through the rod, linear motion into rotary motion of the piston alternative. Transmits the movement and the driving force transmission elements that are coupled. Is subjected to bending and torsion efforts, and has a strong structure and very resistant. The crankshafts, which can…
The route of the Stirling engine throughout history begins in the early 1800s, in England. The hot air engines competed with the steam engine to provide mechanical power to the industrial machinery (in factories and mines) of the first industrial revolution.
Although steam engines had better characteristics than air machines, the air motor had the advantage of being less dangerous. This was due to the first realizations of steam engines suffered devastating boiler explosions. These explosions were due to the use of materials available at the time that were technologically poor.
The Atkinson cycle engine is a type of reciprocating internal combustion engine invented by James Atkinson in 1882. It is practically a common Otto cycle engine, but with a crank modified crank to obtain greater efficiency at the expense of a reduction in the power. The objective was to compete with the Otto cycle without infringing any patent.
In its original version, the Atkinson cycle requires a single rotation of the crankshaft to complete a cycle of operation, keeping the phases of the Otto cycle engine intact: intake, compression, expansion (useful phase) and discharge. However,…
The actual cycle of a thermal engine is the one that reflects the effective conditions of its operation. These conditions are identified with the diagram of average pressures in the cylinder in correspondence to the different positions of the piston. The pressure shown in a mean pressure diagram is the so-called average pressure indicated.
The indicated diagram is the graph that represents this cycle. Simplified operation of the indicator
The indicator is a device used to obtain the indicated diagram of a thermal engine cycle.
In the indicator of the indicated diagram,…
James Watt (Greenock, January 19, 1736 - Handsworth, August 25, 1819) was a Scottish mathematician, engineer, and inventor. Watt's inventions were of great importance for the development of the thermal engine and the steam engine.
Watt invented a control valve (which is still known as regulator "Watt", the centrifugal regulator) to keep constant the speed of the steam engine, he found a way to transform the reciprocating reciprocating movement of the plunger into a movement of continuous rotation of a flywheel. It introduced the "double effect", that is, the steam input alternately at…
Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel, was born in Paris on March 18, 1858 and died in the English Channel on September 30, 1913. Diesel was a German engineer.
Rudolf Diesel built himself a place in the history of the engine by being the inventor of the high-performance combustion engine that bears his name, the diesel engine.
The diesel engine is applicable to locomotion. This engine was presented at the international fair in Paris as the first engine that used mineral oil as a fuel and later called a combustion engine, later named after its inventor.
The diesel engine works according…
The compression ignition engine is the diesel or diesel cycle engine. This qualification refers to the way fuel combustion starts inside the piston.
In this type of motor, what enters the chamber initially is only air; the diesel is injected more or less near top dead center. The fuel enters the liquid state, but it is dense. The dense fuel must be vaporized, mixed with the air and reach the conditions of pressure and temperature appropriate to ignite. The time that this process takes is the self-ignition delay and limits the speed at which the engine can turn and, therefore, its maximum…
Cylinder head, cylinder cap or engine block cover is the top of an internal combustion engine that allows the combustion chamber to close. It constitutes the upper closing of the motor block and in motors on it the valves are seated, having holes for this purpose. The cylinder head has a double wall to allow circulation of the coolant. If the internal combustion engine is ignited (Otto engine), it has threaded holes where the spark plugs are located. In case of being ignition by compression (Diesel engine) in its place it takes the holes for the injectors. The cylinder head is made of cast…
The Stirling cycle is a thermodynamic cycle that describes the operation of a class of equipment (generating or operating machines). The cycle describes the original Stirling engine that was invented and patented in 1816 by the Reverend Robert Stirling, helped substantially by his brother engineer.
The Stirling engine is an external combustion engine. This characteristic differentiates it from other types of engines such as the otto engine or the diesel engine which are internal combustion engines. Both engines operate according to the otto cycle and the diesel cycle respectively.…
Thermodynamics is the part of physics that deals with the relationship between heat and work. It studies the effects of the variation of pressure, temperature and volume of a physical system (we understand by physical system a liquid, a material, a set of bodies, etc.), at a macroscopic level, that is to say, that can be observed.
The term thermodynamics comes from the stem therm, which means heat and dynamics that refers to movement. The movement of heat in a body.
Matter is composed of different particles that move in a disordered way (what is called entropy). Thermodynamics…
What is the indicated diagram?
The indicated diagram is the diagram that represents the real cycle of a heat engine (a diesel engine or an Otto engine).
The actual cycle of a thermal engine reflects the effective operating conditions. These conditions are identified with the diagram of average pressures in the cylinder in correspondence to the different positions of the piston. The pressure shown in a mean pressure diagram is the so-called average pressure indicated. Study of the indicated diagram
By operating cycle of a thermal engine we understand the succession of operations that the active fluid executes in the cylinder and repeats periodically. The duration of the operating cycle is measured by the number of strokes made by the piston to perform it.
In this sense, there are two types of thermal engines:
- 4-stroke engine. In the four-stroke engine the cycle is carried out in 4 strokes of the piston. This engine makes a cycle every two revolutions of the motor shaft.
- 2-stroke engine. The two-stroke cycle is carried out only in 2 strokes of the piston. Two-stroke…
The cylinder of an engine is the enclosure by which a piston moves. The cylinder name comes from its practically cylindrical form.
The materials used to make the cylinders are specific to each type of engine. The way of building and the chosen materials of the cylinder makes vary the performance of the engine. A cylinder made of a gray cast matrix with laminar graphite provides good sliding properties. A motor cylinder made of high quality alloys such as molybdenum, chromium, nickel and manganese, improves hardness and resistance to wear and corrosion.
Engine cylinders are characterized…
The current carrying excitation winding in the stator generates a magnetic field, which is amplified by the iron sheet package and grouped into defined poles. The same happens in the winding of the armature coil downstream. Depending on how the poles are established, this magnetic field created by the stator of the universal motor causes the rotor to drag behind or push it in front of it. In this case, the coils must be inverted in each half revolution (for machines with a pair of poles), for which a switch is necessary.
Considering a "single pole" version, both magnetic fields are perpendicular…
A direct current motor (DC motor), or simply a continuous motor or direct current motor, is a rotating electric malternating currenthine that transforms electrical energy in the form of direct current into mechanical energy through electromagnetic interalternating currenttions.
Virtually all electric motors are reversible, that is, they can transform mechanical energy into electrical energy functioning as dynamos. direct current motors base their operation on the Lorentz law, also called Laplalternating currente's law when it is applied to a conductor, as is the case of motors. Applications…
In some applications, doubts arise as to whether it is better to use an electric motor or to use a thermal motor. One of the important elements in making this decision will be to know the differences in energy efficiency.
Main problems of thermal motors:
- Rising prices of fossil fuels combustibe (oil, coal, etc.)
- Scarce projections of evolution in an immediate future.
- Emission of greenhouse gases.
- Not reversible, when braking, can not generate power.
Main advantages of electric motors:
- You are a clean alternative if we…
Cycles theoretical endothermic engines
For theoretical cycles, commonly used approaches aproximacióna by the real conditions are three:
- real cycle
- air cycle
- air-fuel cycle.
A theoretical these cycles are compared in practice the actual cycles, which are obtained experimentally by means of the indicators, for this reason, the actual cycle also indicated cycle is called.
Although the theoretical cycles do not correspond to actual cycles, provide a useful reference for the thermodynamic study of internal combustion engines,…
Within stationary steam engines we can sub-classify into two main types:
- Steam engines with frequent stops and changes of direction: rolling rolls, steam mules, marine engines and similar applications.
- Steam engines that give power. These types of engines rarely stop and do not need changes of direction. This type includes the engines that are used in thermal power plants, nuclear power plants and those that were used in pumping stations, mills, factories and to power trains and trams before the widespread use of electricity.
Steam mules are technically stationary…
The theoretical diesel cycle is the theoretical cycle of a diesel engine, also known as a compression ignition engine.
The theoretical cycle of a thermal engine is a theoretical approximation of its operation to calculate its performance.
The cycle of an internal combustion engine is constituted by the physical and chemical transformations suffered by the fuel during its passage inside the engine.
The study of a real cycle taking into account all the numerous variables, represents a very complex problem. For this reason, it is usually simplified by resorting to theoretical…
Diesel fuel is a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons, obtained by fractional distillation of crude oil and used as fuel for diesel engines, for heating or for the production of electricity.
It is often inappropriately called naphtha, which is distinguished by a process of better refining and for different uses.
Diesel fuel finds its first applications in the mechanical field between 1893 and 1897, when in the workshops MAN (Maschinenfabrik Augsburg Nuremberg) of Augusta, Rudolf Diesel made the first investigations that led to the invention of the diesel engine. Its name derives from…
We call it by spark to the one of the forms in which it ignites a thermal engine. The engines starting with spark ignition are Otto cycle gasoline engines.
In this type of engines there is an element, the spark plug, which is capable of causing a spark when it receives electric energy. In this way, the spark plug is capable of transforming the electrical energy coming from the battery into a spark.
Around the spark causing the spark plug creates the so-called initial ignition source. In the initial ignition focus fuel combustion is spread forming a flame front.
As the flame…
Next we analyze the diagram of the pressures of a real cycle as a function of the angular displacement of the axis for a 4-stroke engine.
Knowing the indicated cycle, the immediate thing is to draw the diagram of the pressures in the cylinder of the thermal engine as a function of the angular displacement of the crank, instead of depending on the volumes or the reciprocating movements of the piston. In doing so, we take into account the kinematic relationship that links the latter with the axis rotation.
The diagram related to a 4-stroke engine is shown in the figure. In the real…
Traditionally, when we talk about motors, we usually refer to internal combustion engines or electric motors. However, there are other types of motor. Among these types of motor there are the physical power motors.
The so-called physical power motors are motors that take advantage of the kinetic energy or the potential energy of some element.
An example of power motors is found in hydro power plants. In this type of installation the potential energy of the water is used, which, when it falls, becomes kinetic energy and activates a turbine. In this way, a motor,…
Gasoline (or essence and gasoline popularly) is a mixture of hydrocarbons derived from petroleum used as fuel in internal combustion engines. It has a very high calorific value of about 46 MJ / kg.
Gasoline is flammable liquid, colorless, not so dense as water (specific gravity: 0.70 to 0.75). Gasoline obtained from petroleum distillation, between 60 ° and 200 ° C, or by cracking of heavy fractions.
From a chemical point of view, gasoline is a mixture of alkanes, cycloalkanes and aromatic compounds from 4 to 10 carbon atoms and at times of alkenes. Gasoline is mainly used…
Alternative engines can be classified in many different ways. The main forms of classification are the following:
Classification according to the arrangement of the cylinders
- According to the arrangement of the cylinders in the engine
- According to the displacement
- According to the compression ratio
- According to the diameter and stroke ratio
- According to the number of movements of each cycle
A typical way of classifying the reciprocating engine is to use the number and arrangement of the cylinders. In this way we have:
In the 2-stroke motors, the operating cycle is carried out in two races. The admission of the active fluid must be made during a fraction of the compression stroke, and the exhaust must be produced during a fraction of the working stroke.
For this to be verified, it is necessary that the active fluid be pre-compressed to be able to enter the cylinder and that the exhaust of the combustion gases be carried out by its own pressure.
The 2-cycle cycle was conceived to simplify the distribution system, eliminating and reducing the number of valves, and to obtain a greater power with…
It is necessary to know the cycle, not only to check if the thermal engine operation is correct, but also to determine the value of the forces acting on the engine components. When in the design phase is to establish the dimensions of the engine components, proceed to the calculation of stresses based on an expected cycle. This similarity can be drawn by motor cycles parangonables with that study, but also obtained a simple and fast way, ore than with a sufficient approximation, using the following method is set forth by way of example and recommend as applicable to the case engine 4-stroke…
The electric motor is an electrotechnical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. That is, when the electric motor is connected to the proper power source, it begins to rotate, which also begins to rotate the machine or the machine associated with it. That is, it works inversely to the electric generator, which produces electrical energy with mechanical energy.
The electric motor was made possible thanks to the discoveries of Franz Ernst Neumann and James Clerk Maxwell. His discoveries were published in the years 1841 and 1873.
The electric motors can be…
The carburetor is the device that makes the air-fuel mixture in gasoline engines. To get the engine to run more economically and get the most power output, it is important that gasoline is in the best condition. To achieve an optimum air-fuel mixture, the carburetor will use various techniques.
The carburetor basically operates with the same principle of an airbrush. When the air is blown, crossing the axis of the spray pipe, the internal pressure of this pipe falls. The liquid inside the sprayer is consequently pushed into the pipeline and atomized thanks to the friction with the air.…
A spark plug is an electrical device that fits in the head of some internal combustion thermal engines and ignites compressed gasoline by means of an electric spark. It is used, therefore, in petrol engines with otto cycle.
The spark plugs have an isolated central electrode which is connected by a strongly insulated wire to a circuit of the ignition coil on the outside, forming, with a terminal connected to ground at the base of the plug, a spark gap inside the cylinder. How does a spark plug work? How is the spark generated?
As the electrons flow from the coil, a voltage…
An electric generator is a machine that transforms rotational mechanical energy into electrical energy. In this sense, it works in the opposite sense of how an electric motor works.
An electric generator is any device capable of maintaining an electrical potential difference (voltage) between two points, called poles or terminals. Electric generators are electrical machines designed to transform mechanical energy into electrical. This transformation is achieved by the action of a magnetic field on the electric conductors arranged in coils on a sheet metal frame. If a relative movement…
A piston is an element formed by two pieces: a piston that moves in a rectilinear alternative movement and a shirt or guide to which it moves. In principle, the piston has a cylindrical shape and is usually made of metal, although it could be of any material.
The guide is actually a cavity that can be integrated into a different part. It is part of the piston-crank-crank system that serves to transform rectilinear movements into rotary and vice versa. Function of the piston in a thermal engine
In an automotive engine, the piston is traditionally called a cylinder. The cylinder,…
The first law of thermodynamics, also called by extension, the law of conservation of energy, is a fundamental assumption of the theory of thermodynamics.
The first law of thermodynamics is a formulation of the principle of conservation of energy and states that:
"The internal energy of an isolated thermodynamic system is constant."
A thermodynamic universe, which consists of the system and its environment, is an isolated system. Energy is not created or destroyed, but is transformed from one form to another: energy can be transferred through the exchange of heat (heat…
To compare cycle just discussed, it is necessary to refer some of the factors whose value depends on the shape and surface, such as: the compression ratio, the maximum pressure, the amount of heat supplied and the heat subtracted useful work.
The following figure are plotted the curves of the ideal thermal performance variations by varying the ratio of co
RINTING for three cycles: Otto, Diesel and Sabathé. For Diesel cycles and Sabathé has chosen a constant pressure…
Between the Otto real cycle and the corresponding theoretical Otto there are substantial differences. Some of these differences can be observed when comparing the diagram of the real cycle with the theoretical cycle diagram. The other differences that we are going to analyze refer to the differences between the temperature and pressure values of the two Otto engine cycles. Differences in the form of the diagram
The difference in shape of the diagram between a real Otto cycle and a theoretical Otto cycle consists of a different profile in the expansion and compression curves, in…
The electric motors can be distinguished between them according to the type of power supply:
- Electric motors of direct current. The DC electric motor can be, in turn, a permanent induction motor or a continuous induction motor. In addition to these more general classifications there are also other more modern types of engines such as stepper motors and linear motors.
- Electric motors of alternating current. The AC motor can be classified as universal motor, synchronous motor or asynchronous motor.
The classic division is between direct current (DC) and alternating…
The commutator is a component of an electric motor formed by strips of hard electrolytic copper with insulating material in the middle (formerly micanite, nowadays plastic). The assembly is insulated on the rotor shaft and the copper blades are connected to the anchor windings. Permanently installed carbon brushes make contact with the collector and provide power to the anchor windings.
A commutator is a rotary electrical switch in certain types of electric motors and electric generators that periodically changes the direction of the current between the rotor and the external circuit.…
An asynchronous motor is an electric motor powered by alternating current. It is, therefore, what we call an AC motor. This type of engine is also known as an induction motor.
The asynchronous motor is based on the currents induced in the rotor from the rotating magnetic field of the stator. That's why it's called an induction machine. As to be able to induce an electric current in the rotor it is necessary that the rotor is subjected to a variation of the magnetic flux generated by the stator at the frequency of power, or synchronism, the rotor is demagnetized when it reaches the synchronism,…
The universal motor is a type of electric motor that can operate both with direct current and with single-phase alternating current.
Its constitution is similar to that of a direct current series motor, although with some modifications:
The polar nuclei, and the entire magnetic circuit, are built with silicon iron plates isolated and stacked to reduce energy losses by parasitic currents. These currents occur because of magnetic flux variations when connected to an alternating current network.
It has a lower number of turns in the inductor to not magnetically saturate…
Below is a list of definitions and terms related to what is explained on this website.
Mostly they are terms related to the world of the engine, of the thermal, electric motors, the steam engines. There are also concepts related to physics that help to understand the functioning of engines.
The first figure shows a diagram of a typical indicated 2-stroke engine. We need not make a detailed description thereof will suffice to clarify some obscure points, examination of the corresponding path diagram as a function of angular displacement of the crank. This diagram illustrates the second figure.
Nor is there, in this case, correspondence between "time" and "race", for convenience of exposition we have matched the start of the two-stroke points that correspond, respectively, at the beginning of phase COMBUSTION , n at the start of the scanning phase.
A) First Half. Point…
The series motor is a type of electric direct current motor in which the armature and the inductor debited or excitation are connected in series. That is why the excitation current or the inductor is also the current of the induced absorbed by the motor.
This type of direct current motor is also called the series excitation motor. The constitution of the electric motor in series is that of having all the elements of the circuit in series, induced windings and inductors. The series engine is characterized by having a high moment of rotation at start-up and its speeds very variable depending…