Diesel engines have several advantages over other internal combustion engines: Advantages related to diesel engine fuel
The fuel of a diesel engine has a higher energy density and a smaller volume of fuel is required to perform a specific amount of work.
Diesel engines inject fuel directly into the combustion chamber, have no air intake restrictions other than air filters and intake pipes and have no vacuum in the intake manifold to add parasitic load and pump losses to push the pistons down against the vacuum of the intake system. Cylinder filling is aided by atmospheric…
The Otto engine and the diesel engine are two types of thermal engines. These are two types of endothermic engines that, through thermodynamic reactions, convert the internal energy of the fuel into mechanical work. However, there are certain differences between them.
The most important difference is found in its theoretical cycle. The Otto engine operates according to the Otto cycle by spark ignition while the diesel engine is controlled according to the diesel cycle by compression ignition.
The other important difference is in the ignition of the fuel. In the Otto engine the ignition…
Diesel fuel is a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons, obtained by fractional distillation of crude oil and used as fuel for diesel engines, for heating or for the production of electricity.
It is often inappropriately called naphtha, which is distinguished by a process of better refining and for different uses.
Diesel fuel finds its first applications in the mechanical field between 1893 and 1897, when in the workshops MAN (Maschinenfabrik Augsburg Nuremberg) of Augusta, Rudolf Diesel made the first investigations that led to the invention of the diesel engine. Its name derives from…
The diesel engine was invented by Rudolf Diesel, in the year 1893. Rudolf Diese was a German engineer, employed by the firm MAN.
Rudolf Diesel studied high thermal efficiency engines, with the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion engines. Diese's goal was to replace the old steam engines that were inefficient, very heavy and expensive. First steps before reaching the diesel engine
In 1806, brothers Claude and Nicéphore Niépce developed the first known internal combustion engine and the first fuel injection system. The two brothers tested systems…
Diesel engines are also known as compression ignition engines. The diesel engine is a type of internal combustion engine that uses gas oil as fuel for the diesel thermodynamic cycle.
The actual performance of diesel cylinder thermal engines is between 35% and 40% and is widely used to propel vehicles.
Diesel engines can operate with 4-cycle and 2-cycle cycles. 2-stroke engines do not consume more fuel than engines with 4-stroke cycles, because the cylinder is swept with pure air and not with the fuel mixture. This is the reason why there is no loss of fuel through the exhaust.…
An oil refinery is an industrial plant, of the oil raw material by purification and distillation under normal pressure and under vacuum in fractions with a defined boiling range transferred. The additional refinement of the boiling cuts is done by methods such as extraction or chemical cleaning methods. To increase the quality of products, such as their octane number, conversion processes such as isomerization or catalytic reforming are used. In addition, additives are added to products that improve or suppress certain properties.
Higher value products are obtained, such as gasoline,…
The endothermic engine, also known as internal combustion engine. The main characteristic of this type of alternative engines is that through the laws of thermodynamics it is able to take advantage of the energy contained in the fuel to obtain a mechanical work.
The endothermic engine is a type of alternative engine by the way of converting chemical energy into mechanical energy. The most popular endothermic engines are the Otto engine or gasoline engine that operates according to the Otto cycle and the diesel engine, which operates according to the diesel cycle. Meaning of the…
The Otto engine is a type of alternative thermal engine that works through the Otto cycle. It is an alternative engine capable of converting the chemical energy of fuel into mechanical energy through a thermodynamic reaction.
Due to the characteristics of this type of thermal engine it can receive several names.
- Gasoline engine. Due to the fuel used.
- Otto Engine. Because it works through the otto cycle.
- Spark ignition engine. Due to the way to start the ignition of the fuel. The ignition starts through a guspira generated by a spark plug.
The compression ignition engine is the diesel or diesel cycle engine. This qualification refers to the way fuel combustion starts inside the piston.
In this type of motor, what enters the chamber initially is only air; the diesel is injected more or less near top dead center. The fuel enters the liquid state, but it is dense. The dense fuel must be vaporized, mixed with the air and reach the conditions of pressure and temperature appropriate to ignite. The time that this process takes is the self-ignition delay and limits the speed at which the engine can turn and, therefore, its maximum…
Since the first developments of the alternative engine with the steam engine, its use has been growing exponentially. The appearance of internal combustion thermal engines has helped to accelerate its popularity.
However, the characteristics of the alternative engine entails a series of advantages and disadvantages that we intend to study.
From the first alternative engines such as the steam engine or the stirling engine to the current thermal engines the characteristics of this engine have varied a lot. Although the operating principle for the generation of mechanical energy is…
We call it by spark to the one of the forms in which it ignites a thermal engine. The engines starting with spark ignition are Otto cycle gasoline engines.
In this type of engines there is an element, the spark plug, which is capable of causing a spark when it receives electric energy. In this way, the spark plug is capable of transforming the electrical energy coming from the battery into a spark.
Around the spark causing the spark plug creates the so-called initial ignition source. In the initial ignition focus fuel combustion is spread forming a flame front.
As the flame…
Gasoline (or essence and gasoline popularly) is a mixture of hydrocarbons derived from petroleum used as fuel in internal combustion engines. It has a very high calorific value of about 46 MJ / kg.
Gasoline is flammable liquid, colorless, not so dense as water (specific gravity: 0.70 to 0.75). Gasoline obtained from petroleum distillation, between 60 ° and 200 ° C, or by cracking of heavy fractions.
From a chemical point of view, gasoline is a mixture of alkanes, cycloalkanes and aromatic compounds from 4 to 10 carbon atoms and at times of alkenes. Gasoline is mainly used…
Heat engines are a type of alternative engines. Actually, they are the most popular alternative engines.
This type of engine uses the thermal energy caused by the combustion of a fuel (usually gasoil or gasoline) to convert it into mechanical energy. Heat Machines
The concept of a thermal engine is often confused with that of a thermal engine. These terms are related but not exactly the same. A thermal machine is a device or system that works by establishing exchanges of heat and work with its environment. To achieve this, the machine transforms a substance through a cyclic…
A motor or motor is a machine designed to convert a form of energy into mechanical energy . An engine can be classified into a category according to two criteria: the form of energy it accepts to create movement and the type of movement it produces.
As a general rule, engines have an axle, which in rotary offset and through mechanical devices such as drive gears. The exceptions are rocket motors and linear motors . Nowadays, combustion engines…
A boiler is a container, or a set of tubes, used to heat water or other fluid. To heat the liquid can be used various fuels such as diesel, coal, biomass, etc. The most common are fossil fuels. Operation and applications of a boiler
The boiler is a machine or apparatus is designed to heat water or other fluid, usually by combustion of a fuel such as gas, diesel, coal, biomass, etc. The hot or vaporized fluid leaves the boiler for use in different heating processes or applications, generation of motive power from steam, cooking or cleaning. The two most common boiler types are:…
The Stirling engine applications can be divided into three main categories:
- Mechanical propulsion
- Heating and cooling
- Power generation systems
A Stirling engine is a thermal engine that works by cyclic compression and expansion of air or other gas, the working fluid. During the Stirling cycle there is a net conversion of heat to mechanical work. The Stirling cycle engine also operates in reverse, using a mechanical energy input to drive the heat transfer in a reverse direction (ie, a heat pump or refrigerator). Generation of electrical energy…
The operating system of the thermal engines is based on a cycle that is constantly repeated. In the case of internal combustion engines this cycle consists of the fuel input (admission), combustion of the fuel, expansion of the cylinder and expulsion of the gases produced. This cycle generates a mechanical movement, if the cycle repeats we will have a constant mechanical movement.
A thermal engine can work through many different cycles. In this section we will explain the different operating cycles that an internal combustion engine can have, the real cycles and the theoretical cycles.…
The carburetor is the device that makes the air-fuel mixture in gasoline engines. To get the engine to run more economically and get the most power output, it is important that gasoline is in the best condition. To achieve an optimum air-fuel mixture, the carburetor will use various techniques.
The carburetor basically operates with the same principle of an airbrush. When the air is blown, crossing the axis of the spray pipe, the internal pressure of this pipe falls. The liquid inside the sprayer is consequently pushed into the pipeline and atomized thanks to the friction with the air.…
In this website we try to explain the operation of the main types of engines from a theoretical point of view. We present schematically the parts, operating cycles and characteristics of the following types of engines:
- The thermal engine or internal combustion engine. Inside the thermal engines we explain the gasoline engine (or otto engine) and the diesel engine).
- The electric motor. This engine has undergone a great evolution throughout history and right now is one of the most used types of engines and with more projection of the future. We will analyze direct current…
The heat engines can be classified in many different ways. Then classify heat engines, taking into account six different aspects:
Types of heat engines depending on where combustion takes place
- They Depending on where is combustion.
- Depending on the fuel used and the type of lighting.
- Depending on the movement of moving parts.
- Depending on how realizes the cycle.
- Depending on the number of cylinders
- Depending on the arrangement of the cylinders
Depending on where combustion takes place two types:
The theoretical Otto cycle is the ideal cycle of the Otto engine. The Otto engine is also known as a spark ignition engine because the ignition of the fuel is done through a spark caused by a spark plug. It is also known as a gasoline engine because of the type of fuel it uses.
One way to study the performance of this engine is by analyzing its theoretical cycle. The theoretical cycle is an approximation to the real cycle with many simplifications. In practice, there are so many variables that affect the performance of the engine that calculating the actual cycle is practically impossible.…
Cycles theoretical endothermic engines
For theoretical cycles, commonly used approaches aproximacióna by the real conditions are three:
- real cycle
- air cycle
- air-fuel cycle.
A theoretical these cycles are compared in practice the actual cycles, which are obtained experimentally by means of the indicators, for this reason, the actual cycle also indicated cycle is called.
Although the theoretical cycles do not correspond to actual cycles, provide a useful reference for the thermodynamic study of internal combustion engines,…
The cylinder of an engine is the enclosure by which a piston moves. The cylinder name comes from its practically cylindrical form.
The materials used to make the cylinders are specific to each type of engine. The way of building and the chosen materials of the cylinder makes vary the performance of the engine. A cylinder made of a gray cast matrix with laminar graphite provides good sliding properties. A motor cylinder made of high quality alloys such as molybdenum, chromium, nickel and manganese, improves hardness and resistance to wear and corrosion.
Engine cylinders are characterized…
The Stirling engine is an external combustion thermal engine. Originally it was conceived as an industrial main engine to compete with the steam engine, but in practice, for more than a century it was only used for domestic applications and for low power engines.
The Stirling engine was invented in 1816 by Robert Stirling, a Scottish priest. One of the concerns of the time was the safety of steam engines. Stirling's goal was to get a less dangerous engine than the steam engine.
The operation of the Stirling engine is based on the expansion and contraction of a gas that can be…
In some applications, doubts arise as to whether it is better to use an electric motor or to use a thermal motor. One of the important elements in making this decision will be to know the differences in energy efficiency.
Main problems of thermal motors:
- Rising prices of fossil fuels combustibe (oil, coal, etc.)
- Scarce projections of evolution in an immediate future.
- Emission of greenhouse gases.
- Not reversible, when braking, can not generate power.
Main advantages of electric motors:
- You are a clean alternative if we…