# Machine

## Universal motor operation

The current carrying excitation winding in the stator generates a magnetic field, which is amplified by the iron sheet package and grouped into defined poles. The same happens in the winding of the armature coil downstream. Depending on how the poles are established, this magnetic field created by the stator of the universal motor causes the rotor to drag behind or push it in front of it. In this case, the coils must be inverted in each half revolution (for machines with a pair of poles), for which a switch is necessary.

Considering a "single pole" version, both magnetic fields are perpendicular…

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## Types of steam engines

Steam engines are mechanical devices capable of transforming heat energy into mechanical energy in a rotating axis. This heat energy takes advantage of the energy contained in water vapor at high pressure and temperature.

We consider steam engines all those machines that transform the thermal energy of a fluid into mechanical energy. In general, the fluid must be pre-heated and at the outlet of the steam machine it must be cooled to repeat the process.

Steam machines can be classified into these two types:

• Plunger steam engine
• Turbine steam engine

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## Second law of thermodynamics

The second law of thermodynamics is a principle of classical thermodynamics that establishes the irreversibility of many thermodynamic events, such as the passage of heat from a hot body to a cold one. Unlike other laws of physics such as the law of universal gravitation or Maxwell's equations, the second principle is fundamentally linked to the arrow of time.

The second principle of thermodynamics has several equivalent formulations, one of which is based on the introduction of a state function, entropy: in this case the second principle states that the 'entropy of a system isolated…

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## What is the induced?

The armature is the part of an electric machine, magnetically coupled to the inductor, where an electromotive force is generated by induction.

The armature is the rotor in DC machines and the stator in synchronous AC machines.

The term induced term varies depending on the context in which it is used. It is usually linked to the electricity sector, electric machines and motors.

Electric machines and motors

If we are talking about electric machines and electric motors. In this context the armature is the part of the rotating machine where the transformation of electrical…

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## Synchronous motor

Synchronous motors are a type of electric AC motor. Its speed of rotation is constant and depends on the frequency of the voltage of the electrical network to which it is connected and the number of pairs of poles of the motor, the speed is known as "synchronous speed".

The mathematical expression that relates the speed of the machine with the mentioned parameters is:

where:

## Electric motor

The electric motor is an electrotechnical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. That is, when the electric motor is connected to the proper power source, it begins to rotate, which also begins to rotate the machine or the machine associated with it. That is, it works inversely to the electric generator, which produces electrical energy with mechanical energy.

The electric motor was made possible thanks to the discoveries of Franz Ernst Neumann and James Clerk Maxwell. His discoveries were published in the years 1841 and 1873.

The electric motors can be…

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## Safety in steam engines

Safety in steam engines is an important issue that needs to be studied and prevented due to the characteristics of this type of machine.

The composition of the steam machines formed by boilers and other components under pressure causes fluids with a very high potential energy to be stored. Due to the high pressure and temperature with which you work any steam or explosion leaks can be very harmful for the safety of people.

Throughout the history of steam engines there have been very serious accidents that have involved considerable material damage and even the loss of human lives.

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## Uses of the steam engine

The uses of the steam engine have been changing with the passage of time.

Initially, since the early eighteenth century, steam engines have been used to power a multitude of uses. At first, the steam engine was used as a piston pump. A piston pump is a hydraulic pump that generates movement in it by the movement of a piston.

Subsequently, from the years 1780 began to appear alternative engines. With the alternative motors a new use of the steam engine appears: to give power to the factories and to the industrial one. At the beginning of the 19th century, steam…

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## Types of engines

A motor or motor is a machine designed to convert a form of energy into mechanical energy . An engine can be classified into a category according to two criteria: the form of energy it accepts to create movement and the type of movement it produces.

As a general rule, engines have an axle, which in rotary offset and through mechanical devices such as drive gears. The exceptions are rocket motors and linear motors . Nowadays, combustion engines…

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## Rotor of an electric motor. What is it?

The rotor is the component that turns on an electric machine. The same definition is valid whether the electric machine is an electric motor or an electric generator. The rotor together with its together with its fixed counterpart, the stator, form the fundamental set for the transmission of power in motors and electrical machines in general.

The rotor is formed by an axis that supports a set of coils wound on a magnetic core. This axis rotates inside a magnetic field created either by a magnet, an electromagnet or by passing through another set of coils, wound on some polar pieces.…

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## Electric generator

An electric generator is a machine that transforms rotational mechanical energy into electrical energy. In this sense, it works in the opposite sense of how an electric motor works.

An electric generator is any device capable of maintaining an electrical potential difference (voltage) between two points, called poles or terminals. Electric generators are electrical machines designed to transform mechanical energy into electrical. This transformation is achieved by the action of a magnetic field on the electric conductors arranged in coils on a sheet metal frame. If a relative movement…

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## Heat engine

Heat engines are a type of alternative engines. Actually, they are the most popular alternative engines.

This type of engine uses the thermal energy caused by the combustion of a fuel (usually gasoil or gasoline) to convert it into mechanical energy.

Heat Machines

The concept of a thermal engine is often confused with that of a thermal engine. These terms are related but not exactly the same. A thermal machine is a device or system that works by establishing exchanges of heat and work with its environment. To achieve this, the machine transforms a substance through a cyclic…

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## Transport uses of steam engines

Steam engines are used to power a wide variety of self-transport applications. These are a few examples:

• Marine applications, naval transport: steamships, steam boats, steam yachts.
• Applications of the steam engine in the field of rail transport: Steam locomotive.
• Agricultural applications: used as traction motor for agricultural machinery. The first tractors in the sector were steam tractors.
• Road transport: Steam vans, steam buses, steam tricycles, steam car.
• Applications in construction machinery: Steam steamroller, steam excavator
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## Commutator

The commutator is a component of an electric motor formed by strips of hard electrolytic copper with insulating material in the middle (formerly micanite, nowadays plastic). The assembly is insulated on the rotor shaft and the copper blades are connected to the anchor windings. Permanently installed carbon brushes make contact with the collector and provide power to the anchor windings.

A commutator is a rotary electrical switch in certain types of electric motors and electric generators that periodically changes the direction of the current between the rotor and the external circuit.…

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## Stator of an electric motor. What is it?

The stator is the fixed part of an electric machine. By electric machine we refer to both electric motors and electric generators. The moving part of an electric motor is called a rotor.

In AC machines the stator is generally in the form of a cylindrical tube, with a certain wall thickness. A based on stacked crowns of magnetic sheet with a toothed on its inner circle are formed the slots where the coils are housed. In the continuous current machines the stator is formed by a solid steel cylindrical frame. This frame has polar poles or pieces with corresponding coils attached to it.

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## James Watt

James Watt (Greenock, January 19, 1736 - Handsworth, August 25, 1819) was a Scottish mathematician, engineer, and inventor. Watt's inventions were of great importance for the development of the thermal engine and the steam engine.

Watt invented a control valve (which is still known as regulator "Watt", the centrifugal regulator) to keep constant the speed of the steam engine, he found a way to transform the reciprocating reciprocating movement of the plunger into a movement of continuous rotation of a flywheel. It introduced the "double effect", that is, the steam input alternately at…

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## Stirling Cycle

The Stirling cycle is a thermodynamic cycle that describes the operation of a class of equipment (generating or operating machines). The cycle describes the original Stirling engine that was invented and patented in 1816 by the Reverend Robert Stirling, helped substantially by his brother engineer.

The Stirling engine is an external combustion engine. This characteristic differentiates it from other types of engines such as the otto engine or the diesel engine which are internal combustion engines. Both engines operate according to the otto cycle and the diesel cycle respectively.

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## Types of heat engines

The heat engines can be classified in many different ways. Then classify heat engines, taking into account six different aspects:

• They Depending on where is combustion.
• Depending on the fuel used and the type of lighting.
• Depending on the movement of moving parts.
• Depending on how realizes the cycle.
• Depending on the number of cylinders
• Depending on the arrangement of the cylinders
Types of heat engines depending on where combustion takes place

Depending on where combustion takes place two types: