# Motors

## Physical power motor

Traditionally, when we talk about motors, we usually refer to internal combustion engines or electric motors. However, there are other types of motor. Among these types of motor there are the physical power motors.

The so-called physical power motors are motors that take advantage of the kinetic energy or the potential energy of some element.

An example of power motors is found in hydro power plants. In this type of installation the potential energy of the water is used, which, when it falls, becomes kinetic energy and activates a turbine. In this way, a motor,…

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## Direct current motor

A direct current motor (DC motor), or simply a continuous motor or direct current motor, is a rotating electric malternating currenthine that transforms electrical energy in the form of direct current into mechanical energy through electromagnetic interalternating currenttions.

Virtually all electric motors are reversible, that is, they can transform mechanical energy into electrical energy functioning as dynamos. direct current motors base their operation on the Lorentz law, also called Laplalternating currente's law when it is applied to a conductor, as is the case of motors.

Applications…

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## Types of engines

A motor or motor is a machine designed to convert a form of energy into mechanical energy . An engine can be classified into a category according to two criteria: the form of energy it accepts to create movement and the type of movement it produces.

As a general rule, engines have an axle, which in rotary offset and through mechanical devices such as drive gears. The exceptions are rocket motors and linear motors . Nowadays, combustion engines…

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## Linear motor

A linear motor is an asynchronous electric motor that has been developed so that instead of generating a rotating torque it generates a linear displacement. To get it distributes your stator and its rotor distributed differently.

The most common mode of operation is like a Lorentz actuator. In this mode the applied force is linearly proportional to the electric current and to the magnetic field

Linear motors are divided into two main groups:

• Slow acceleration linear motors used in Sky Train transport, Maglev, etc.
• Quick acceleration linear motors used in…

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## Types of electric motors

The electric motors can be distinguished between them according to the type of power supply:

• Electric motors of direct current. The DC electric motor can be, in turn, a permanent induction motor or a continuous induction motor. In addition to these more general classifications there are also other more modern types of engines such as stepper motors and linear motors.
• Electric motors of alternating current. The AC motor can be classified as universal motor, synchronous motor or asynchronous motor.

The classic division is between direct current (DC) and alternating…

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## Universal motor

The universal motor is a type of electric motor that can operate both with direct current and with single-phase alternating current.

Its constitution is similar to that of a direct current series motor, although with some modifications:

The polar nuclei, and the entire magnetic circuit, are built with silicon iron plates isolated and stacked to reduce energy losses by parasitic currents. These currents occur because of magnetic flux variations when connected to an alternating current network.

It has a lower number of turns in the inductor to not magnetically saturate…

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## Electric motor

The electric motor is an electrotechnical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. That is, when the electric motor is connected to the proper power source, it begins to rotate, which also begins to rotate the machine or the machine associated with it. That is, it works inversely to the electric generator, which produces electrical energy with mechanical energy.

The electric motor was made possible thanks to the discoveries of Franz Ernst Neumann and James Clerk Maxwell. His discoveries were published in the years 1841 and 1873.

The electric motors can be…

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## Altern current motor

Altern current motors are electric motors that are powered by alternating current. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical rotation energy through the mutual action of magnetic fields.

There is a wide variety of altern current motors, among which the following basic types stand out:

• The universal motor that can also be direct current.
• The synchronous motor. In this type of electric motor the speed of rotation is constant and depends on the frequency.
• The asynchronous motor. It is a three-phase motor.

In some cases, such as…

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## Asynchronous motor

An asynchronous motor is an electric motor powered by alternating current. It is, therefore, what we call an AC motor. This type of engine is also known as an induction motor.

The asynchronous motor is based on the currents induced in the rotor from the rotating magnetic field of the stator. That's why it's called an induction machine. As to be able to induce an electric current in the rotor it is necessary that the rotor is subjected to a variation of the magnetic flux generated by the stator at the frequency of power, or synchronism, the rotor is demagnetized when it reaches the synchronism,…

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## Endothermic engine

The endothermic engine, also known as internal combustion engine. The main characteristic of this type of alternative engines is that through the laws of thermodynamics it is able to take advantage of the energy contained in the fuel to obtain a mechanical work.

The endothermic engine is a type of alternative engine by the way of converting chemical energy into mechanical energy. The most popular endothermic engines are the Otto engine or gasoline engine that operates according to the Otto cycle and the diesel engine, which operates according to the diesel cycle.

Meaning of the…

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## Internal combustion engines, external and electric

In this website we try to explain the operation of the main types of engines from a theoretical point of view. We present schematically the parts, operating cycles and characteristics of the following types of engines:

• The thermal engine or internal combustion engine. Inside the thermal engines we explain the gasoline engine (or otto engine) and the diesel engine).
• The electric motor. This engine has undergone a great evolution throughout history and right now is one of the most used types of engines and with more projection of the future. We will analyze direct current…

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In some applications, doubts arise as to whether it is better to use an electric motor or to use a thermal motor. One of the important elements in making this decision will be to know the differences in energy efficiency.

Main problems of thermal motors:

• Rising prices of fossil fuels combustibe (oil, coal, etc.)
• Scarce projections of evolution in an immediate future.
• Emission of greenhouse gases.
• Not reversible, when braking, can not generate power.

• You are a clean alternative if we…

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## Synchronous motor

Synchronous motors are a type of electric AC motor. Its speed of rotation is constant and depends on the frequency of the voltage of the electrical network to which it is connected and the number of pairs of poles of the motor, the speed is known as "synchronous speed".

The mathematical expression that relates the speed of the machine with the mentioned parameters is:

where:

## Triphasic current. What is it?

Definition of three-phase current

A three-phase current system consists of three single-phase alternating currents of the same frequency and amplitude (and therefore, effective value) that present a certain phase difference between them, around 120 °, and are given in a certain order.

Characteristics of the three-phase current

Each of the single-phase currents that make up the system is designated with the phase name.

A three-phase voltage system is said to be balanced when its currents are equal and are symmetrically out of phase. When any of the above conditions…

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## What is the induced?

The armature is the part of an electric machine, magnetically coupled to the inductor, where an electromotive force is generated by induction.

The armature is the rotor in DC machines and the stator in synchronous AC machines.

The term induced term varies depending on the context in which it is used. It is usually linked to the electricity sector, electric machines and motors.

Electric machines and motors

If we are talking about electric machines and electric motors. In this context the armature is the part of the rotating machine where the transformation of electrical…

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## Universal motor operation

The current carrying excitation winding in the stator generates a magnetic field, which is amplified by the iron sheet package and grouped into defined poles. The same happens in the winding of the armature coil downstream. Depending on how the poles are established, this magnetic field created by the stator of the universal motor causes the rotor to drag behind or push it in front of it. In this case, the coils must be inverted in each half revolution (for machines with a pair of poles), for which a switch is necessary.

Considering a "single pole" version, both magnetic fields are perpendicular…

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## Joule effect

The Joule effect, also called Joule's law, is the thermal manifestation of electrical resistance. If electricity circulates in an electric conductor, a part of the kinetic energy of the electrons is transformed into heat due to the shock that the electrons experience with the molecules of the conductor through which they circulate, which increases the temperature of the conductor. It is named in honor of the English physicist James Prescott Joule.

Definition of the Joule effect:

The amount of heat energy produced by an electric current is directly proportional to the square of…

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## Otto Motor

The Otto engine is a type of alternative thermal engine that works through the Otto cycle. It is an alternative engine capable of converting the chemical energy of fuel into mechanical energy through a thermodynamic reaction.

Due to the characteristics of this type of thermal engine it can receive several names.

• Gasoline engine. Due to the fuel used.
• Otto Engine. Because it works through the otto cycle.
• Spark ignition engine. Due to the way to start the ignition of the fuel. The ignition starts through a guspira generated by a spark plug.
Use…

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## What is a motor?

The engine is a machine capable of transforming a source of energy, which can be in chemical form (in the presence of a fuel), electrical or thermal, into a mechanical energy or mechanically continuous work, typically used in the field application purposes. with the propulsion of various types of vehicles.

In a philosophical sense, an engine is the organism that causes movement or change in other affiliated institutions: Aristotle spoke of motionless motor, a term also picked up by other philosophers, to indicate the cause of the universe, that is, the object or subject which (according…

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## Squirrel cage rotor

A squirrel cage rotor is the rotating part of the common squirrel cage induction motor. The squirrel-cage motor is a type of AC motor.

This type of rotor consists of a cylinder of steel laminations, with aluminum or copper conductors embedded in its surface. In operation, the non-rotating stator winding is connected to an alternating current power source; the alternating current in the stator produces a rotating magnetic field. The rotor winding has a current induced by the stator field, and produces its own magnetic field. The interaction of the two magnetic field sources produces torque…

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## Types of heat engines

The heat engines can be classified in many different ways. Then classify heat engines, taking into account six different aspects:

• They Depending on where is combustion.
• Depending on the fuel used and the type of lighting.
• Depending on the movement of moving parts.
• Depending on how realizes the cycle.
• Depending on the number of cylinders
• Depending on the arrangement of the cylinders
Types of heat engines depending on where combustion takes place

Depending on where combustion takes place two types: