# Phase

## Triphasic current. What is it?

Definition of three-phase current

A three-phase current system consists of three single-phase alternating currents of the same frequency and amplitude (and therefore, effective value) that present a certain phase difference between them, around 120 °, and are given in a certain order.

Characteristics of the three-phase current

Each of the single-phase currents that make up the system is designated with the phase name.

A three-phase voltage system is said to be balanced when its currents are equal and are symmetrically out of phase. When any of the above conditions…

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## Pressure diagram for a 4-stroke engine

Next we analyze the diagram of the pressures of a real cycle as a function of the angular displacement of the axis for a 4-stroke engine.

Knowing the indicated cycle, the immediate thing is to draw the diagram of the pressures in the cylinder of the thermal engine as a function of the angular displacement of the crank, instead of depending on the volumes or the reciprocating movements of the piston. In doing so, we take into account the kinematic relationship that links the latter with the axis rotation.

The diagram related to a 4-stroke engine is shown in the figure. In the real…

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## Asynchronous motor

An asynchronous motor is an electric motor powered by alternating current. It is, therefore, what we call an AC motor. This type of engine is also known as an induction motor.

The asynchronous motor is based on the currents induced in the rotor from the rotating magnetic field of the stator. That's why it's called an induction machine. As to be able to induce an electric current in the rotor it is necessary that the rotor is subjected to a variation of the magnetic flux generated by the stator at the frequency of power, or synchronism, the rotor is demagnetized when it reaches the synchronism,…

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## Altern current motor

Altern current motors are electric motors that are powered by alternating current. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical rotation energy through the mutual action of magnetic fields.

There is a wide variety of altern current motors, among which the following basic types stand out:

In some cases, such as…

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## Universal motor operation

The current carrying excitation winding in the stator generates a magnetic field, which is amplified by the iron sheet package and grouped into defined poles. The same happens in the winding of the armature coil downstream. Depending on how the poles are established, this magnetic field created by the stator of the universal motor causes the rotor to drag behind or push it in front of it. In this case, the coils must be inverted in each half revolution (for machines with a pair of poles), for which a switch is necessary.

Considering a "single pole" version, both magnetic fields are perpendicular…

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## Stirling Cycle

The Stirling cycle is a thermodynamic cycle that describes the operation of a class of equipment (generating or operating machines). The cycle describes the original Stirling engine that was invented and patented in 1816 by the Reverend Robert Stirling, helped substantially by his brother engineer.

The Stirling engine is an external combustion engine. This characteristic differentiates it from other types of engines such as the otto engine or the diesel engine which are internal combustion engines. Both engines operate according to the otto cycle and the diesel cycle respectively.

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## Electric motor

The electric motor is an electrotechnical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. That is, when the electric motor is connected to the proper power source, it begins to rotate, which also begins to rotate the machine or the machine associated with it. That is, it works inversely to the electric generator, which produces electrical energy with mechanical energy.

The electric motor was made possible thanks to the discoveries of Franz Ernst Neumann and James Clerk Maxwell. His discoveries were published in the years 1841 and 1873.

The electric motors can be…

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## Types of electric motors

The electric motors can be distinguished between them according to the type of power supply:

The classic division is between direct current (DC) and alternating…

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## 4-stroke engine

A four-stroke engine is a type internal combustion engine, an alternative engine. It can work both in diesel cycle and Otto cycle ( gasoline engine). It is therefore a thermodynamic and combustion motorcycle.

The most important feature is that you need to perform four strokes of the piston or plunger to complete the cycle. During these 4 races the crankshaft makes two full turns. These four times are: admission, compression, combustion or explosion and escape.

In 1861, the German Otto experimented with his first 4-stroke gas engine. Otto had to abandon the project due to technical…

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## Diagram shown as a function of crank angle for a 2-stroke engine

The first figure shows a diagram of a typical indicated 2-stroke engine. We need not make a detailed description thereof will suffice to clarify some obscure points, examination of the corresponding path diagram as a function of angular displacement of the crank. This diagram illustrates the second figure.

Nor is there, in this case, correspondence between "time" and "race", for convenience of exposition we have matched the start of the two-stroke points that correspond, respectively, at the beginning of phase COMBUSTION , n at the start of the scanning phase.

A) First Half. Point…

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## Steam. What is it?

Steam is a substance in the gas phase that is at a temperature lower than the critical point. Due to this characteristic, the vapor can be condensed in a liquid or a solid increasing its pressure without reducing the temperature.

That is, the vapor is a gas that can be condensed at a constant temperature, increasing the pressure. On the other hand, to convert a non-vaporous gas to liquid, it is not enough to increase the pressure, but the temperature must be lowered.

For example, water has a critical temperature of 374 ° C (647 kelvin), which is the highest temperature at…

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## Refinery

An oil refinery is an industrial plant, of the oil raw material by purification and distillation under normal pressure and under vacuum in fractions with a defined boiling range transferred. The additional refinement of the boiling cuts is done by methods such as extraction or chemical cleaning methods. To increase the quality of products, such as their octane number, conversion processes such as isomerization or catalytic reforming are used. In addition, additives are added to products that improve or suppress certain properties.

Higher value products are obtained, such as gasoline,…

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## Atkinson cycle

The Atkinson cycle engine is a type of reciprocating internal combustion engine invented by James Atkinson in 1882. It is practically a common Otto cycle engine, but with a crank modified crank to obtain greater efficiency at the expense of a reduction in the power. The objective was to compete with the Otto cycle without infringing any patent.

In its original version, the Atkinson cycle requires a single rotation of the crankshaft to complete a cycle of operation, keeping the phases of the Otto cycle engine intact: intake, compression, expansion (useful phase) and discharge. However,…

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## Steam machine

A steam engine is a device that produces mechanical energy through the use of water vapor. In particular, thermal energy is transformed into mechanical energy by means of steam. Heat is typically produced by burning fossil fuels, particularly coal, but it can also come from wood, hydrocarbons or nuclear reactions.

Description of steam engines

An essential part of the system that includes the steam engine is the steam generator, or the boiler. In the boiler water vapor is obtained by the administration of heat to liquid water. The steam is then sent to the engine, which can be…

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## Exam of the indicated diagram

What is the indicated diagram?

The indicated diagram is the diagram that represents the real cycle of a heat engine (a diesel engine or an Otto engine).

The actual cycle of a thermal engine reflects the effective operating conditions. These conditions are identified with the diagram of average pressures in the cylinder in correspondence to the different positions of the piston. The pressure shown in a mean pressure diagram is the so-called average pressure indicated.

Study of the indicated diagram

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## 2-stroke engine, 2-stroke

In the 2-stroke motors, the operating cycle is carried out in two races. The admission of the active fluid must be made during a fraction of the compression stroke, and the exhaust must be produced during a fraction of the working stroke.

For this to be verified, it is necessary that the active fluid be pre-compressed to be able to enter the cylinder and that the exhaust of the combustion gases be carried out by its own pressure.

The 2-cycle cycle was conceived to simplify the distribution system, eliminating and reducing the number of valves, and to obtain a greater power with…

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## Universal motor

The universal motor is a type of electric motor that can operate both with direct current and with single-phase alternating current.

Its constitution is similar to that of a direct current series motor, although with some modifications:

• The polar nuclei, and the entire magnetic circuit, are built with silicon iron plates isolated and stacked to reduce energy losses by parasitic currents. These currents occur because of magnetic flux variations when connected to an alternating current network.
• Lower number of turns in the inductor in order not to magnetically saturate…

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## Sabathé mixed cycle

The actual operating conditions of diesel engines differ markedly from those that are represented in the ideal Otto and Diesel cycles. For diesel engines, the combustion process transformational approaches a constant pressure only in case of unusually large motors and slow.

The actual plot shows that, under normal conditions, the combustion takes place, in Diesel engines, according to a process that approximates a transformational combustion and a constant volume at pressures n…

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## I cycle indicated provided

It is necessary to know the cycle, not only to check if the thermal engine operation is correct, but also to determine the value of the forces acting on the engine components. When in the design phase is to establish the dimensions of the engine components, proceed to the calculation of stresses based on an expected cycle. This similarity can be drawn by motor cycles parangonables with that study, but also obtained a simple and fast way, ore than with a sufficient approximation, using the following method is set forth by way of example and recommend as applicable to the case engine 4-stroke

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## Theoretical and real cycles Cycles

Cycles theoretical endothermic engines

For theoretical cycles, commonly used approaches aproximacióna by the real conditions are three:

• real cycle
• air cycle
• air-fuel cycle.

A theoretical these cycles are compared in practice the actual cycles, which are obtained experimentally by means of the indicators, for this reason, the actual cycle also indicated cycle is called.

Although the theoretical cycles do not correspond to actual cycles, provide a useful reference for the thermodynamic study of internal combustion engines,…

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