The bench is a generally metallic piece that supports a set of elements, whether mechanical or electrical.
In engines, the bench is the element that constitutes the lower part of the engine. The function of the bench is to support moving parts. In addition, it serves as a retaining wall for the lubricating oil. It is a very resistant element able to withstand the internal stresses inherent to engine operation.
Description of the internal combustion engine mainframe
The shape of a motor bed varies depending on the type of motor. In this section we will describe the bench of an internal combustion engine. The description is valid for the diesel engine and the gasoline engine or Otto engine.
The forms that can be adopted by the engine bench depend mainly on the type of engine to which it is attached. The main elements that determine its final form are the efforts to which it will be subjected, the power and the motor design.
The bench is usually built using cast steel. Simplificadamente is a piece formed by two profiles of double T. The faces of the two profiles finalize in a mechanized face. It is necessary that this face be smooth and flat enough to fit perfectly with the columns or frames. Between the racks they will form a well or pan called crankcase where the oil is collected, they will serve as sustenance to the upper part of the engine. In addition, the columns will support the upper part of the engine.
These trays or trays that form the crankcase are equipped with large diameter tubes so that the oil can pass freely under its own weight to the lubrication tank located below to be discharged there. Once unloaded, the oil is sent back to the lubrication circuit by means of the oil pump.
The profiles are linked together by transverse partitions. On cross partitions there are semicircular slits. In these grooves are the main bearings and on them in turn rests the crankshaft of the engine.
Its construction according to engine class
The engine bed is different depending on whether it is mounted on low or high power motors. When it comes to low power engines, the bench forms a single piece in conjunction with the frame and cylinder block. In this way the constriction of the bench is simpler and more economical.
In the case of high-power motors, it is built in several sections. The advantage of building the bench in sections is to facilitate maintenance.