Combustion chamber
Otto cilco thermal engine

Types of heat engines

Types of heat engines

The heat engines can be classified in many different ways. Then classify heat engines, taking into account six different aspects:

  • They Depending on where is combustion.
  • Depending on the fuel used and the type of lighting.
  • Depending on the movement of moving parts.
  • Depending on how realizes the cycle.
  • Depending on the number of cylinders
  • Depending on the arrangement of the cylinders

Types of heat engines depending on where combustion takes place

Depending on where combustion takes place two types:

  • Exothermic or external combustion engines
  • Endothermic or internal combustion engines

Exothermic combustion engine takes place outside of the machine (steam). Such engines are not used in automotive industry.

In the endothermic engine combustion process is carried out in the interior of the engine. They are used in self-propelled vehicles (cars, trucks, boats ...).

Classification of heat engines depending on the fuel used and the type of ignition

Depending on the type of fuel used and power distinguish the following types of heat engines:

  • Combustion engine (Otto)
  • Diesel engines

Combustion engines (Otto), they can also call caused ignition engines. For the operation of such engines generally use a mixture of air and gasoline that ignite due to electrical spark caused by the ignition system. The Otto supporting moderate pressures that make reaching a high number of revolutions achieve maximum power regimes between 5500 and 7000 rpm.

Diesel engines are also called compression ignition engines. To operate using heavy fuels, mainly diesel. The combustion of diesel begins with inflammation, finely pulverized and injected at high pressure on heavily compressed air to an elevated temperature. The components of diesel engines must be robust and heavy to withstand the high pressures at which they work. This means that the maximum operating RPM is limited.

There are two types according to the revolutions per minute that can:

  • Fast Diesel: Diesel engines are fast turning regimes around 5,000 rpm. They are mounted on cars and light commercial vehicles.
  • Lenses Diesel: Diesel engines lenses rotate between 900 and 2000 RPM approximately unit with a displacement of up to 2,000 cc. They are mounted on trucks, buses, locomotives, ships and heavy machinery.

Types of heat engines depending on the type of movement of mobile elements

Engines are called volumetric those where mobile elements generated through movement variable volumes between a maximum and a minimum value. According to this definition can be divided into two engine types:

  • Alternative Motors: A cylinder piston moves with an alternate linear movement is transformed into rotary mechanism through a connecting rod-crank. They represent practically all engines used in all motor vehicles.
  • Rotary Motors: Also called Wankel engine. The rotary motion is generated directly in a triangular piston, which in turn is a case where three quarters. Works following the four-stroke Otto cycle. You do not have valves for both intake and exhaust is through ESPIRALL. Its use in the automotive sector is very low.

Classification of heat engines depending on the way to realize the cycle

This is an important classification of heat engines. Depending on the way to realize the cycle can be distinguished:

  • Heat engines 4 stroke
  • 2-stroke engines thermal

The four-stroke cycle work performed four times -admissió, compression, expansion and explosion-piston escapament- in four races for two full turns of the crank. The gas exchange is controlled by valves that open and close intake and exhaust ducts. They may be diesel or explosion.

In the two-stroke cycle work four times, made in the two races of the piston and, therefore, a return to the crankshaft. This justifies this type of engine that provides more power with the same four-stroke engines. The gas exchange is controlled by means ESPIRALL piston travel, which adversely affects performance and pollution control difficult. Otto can be, fitted to small displacement motorcycles, and diesel, which are large displacement and are used for propulsion of water vehicles and industrial machinery.

Types of heat engines according to the number of cylinders

Depending on the number of cylinders having a combustion engine can distinguish:

  • Single-cylinder engine: These are heat engines that have only a single cylinder.
  • Policilíndrics Motors: These types of motors have more than one cylinder. Virtually all motor vehicles, except motorcycles are policilíndrics.

Classification of heat engines depending on the arrangement of the cylinders

Cylinder engines: On a single block the cylinders are arranged one after the other: This provision is used in engine cylinder 2 to 6 and 8 to diesel engines.

V cylinder engines: They are constituted by a double block V forms an angle of 60 or 90 degrees between them. In this type of engine, two pistons, one block, working on the same side of the crankshaft.

A variant of this type of engine is the double-V (W). This designation applies to motors with more than two rows of cylinders, which have a single common crankshaft.

Thus obtained motors W8, W10, W12 and W16 with a very compact size, running a very balanced and very low vibration level.

Horizontal cylinder engines found: The cylinders are arranged in two blocks attached horizontally to the base with a common crankshaft. The height of this motor is very small. They may be two, four or six cylinders.

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Last review: November 21, 2016