De-Motor is a site where we explain the most important elements of engine engineering in a way that you can understand. If you haven't found what you were looking for on the web, here is a list of all the pages we have published.
- Heat Engines
Heat engines are a type of reciprocating engine. They use thermal energy to obtain mechanical work.
- Types of Heat Engines
Thermal engines can be classified in different ways depending on various factors. Depending on the type of fuel, the operating cycles and 4 more variables.
- Compression Ignition Engine
The compression ignition engine is a type of heat engine that runs on the diesel cycle. Discover the basic characteristics of operation.
The spark ignition engine is a heat engine in which fuel combustion is carried out by the spark of a spark plug.
The reciprocating engine or pistin engine uses the reciprocating motion of one or more pistons to convert the pressure in a fluid into work, usually in the form of a rotational motion.
- Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages and disadvantages of the new developments of alternative engines. Its advantages have allowed a rapid development but these characteristics also have certain drawbacks.
Different classifications of alternative engines can be established depending on the criteria to be followed. Classification depends on displacement, cylinder arrangement, compression ratio, bore-to-stroke ratio, and number of cycles.
The history of the alternative engine starts in China 1800 years ago with the construction of a machine with a connecting rod. Later, the piston engine appears with the steam engine, the stirling engine and the internal combustion engines.
Endothermic engine is a type of reciprocating engine. Description of the types of endothermic engines most used: diesel and Otto.
Diesel engines are characterized by having compression ignition. Fuel enters the cylinder by injection and ignites due to the high temperature of the gas.
- Theoretical Diesel Cycle
The theoretical cycle of the diesel engine. We explain the diagrams and the performance of the theoretical cycle of this type of heat engine.
Between the real and theoretical diesel cycles there are differences and similarities in the form and in the values of the pressures and temperatures. Differences that also appear in the otto cycle.
Diesel engines have several advantages over other internal combustion engines. Advantages related to the type of fuel and the type of fuel ignition.
The diesel engine was invented by Rudolf Diesel with the idea of starting combustion by compressing the fuel.
- Rudolf Diesel
Rudolf Cristiano Karl Diesel was a German engineer. Diesel was the inventor of the high-performance combustion engine that bears his name, the diesel engine.
Otto or gasoline engines is a type of heat engine that works through the otto cylinder. The ignition of the fuel is carried out by means of a spark. The most common are 4-stroke.
- Otto Cycle
The Otto cycle is the cycle by which the operation of the Otto engine or gasoline engine is governed. We study the phases of the theoretical Otto cycle and the performance of the ideal Otto cycle.
Analysis of the differences between the real Otto cycle and the theoretical Otto. Between both cycles there are substantial differences both in the form of the diagram and in the values of temperatures and pressures.
Main differences between diesel and gasoline engines. Difference in operating cycle, fuel input, different types of ignition. Weight differences.
We distinguish three types of cycles in heat engines: theoretical, real and operational. We explain what one of them consists of.
- 4 Stroke Engine
In 4-stroke engines, the cycle is carried out in 4 piston strokes. In a cycle of a four motor, two revolutions of the motor shaft are obtained.
- Thermal Performance
The performance of an engine is its ability to convert thermal energy into mechanical or work energy. Explanation in a 4-stroke engine.
We analyze the diagram of the pressures of a real cycle as a function of the angular displacement of the axis for a 4-stroke engine. Explanation of the internal state of the motor during the 4 phases of the cycle.
In 2-stroke engines, the cycle is carried out in two races. This type of engine offers greater power but with a higher consumption.
The theoretical cycles of endothermic engines are approximations to the real cycle. The most commonly used cycles are: real cycle, air cycle, air-fuel cycle.
- Indicated Cycle
Indicated Cycle is the diagram to calculate the value of the forces acting on the motor organs. The indicated cycle allows to calculate the dimensioning of the motor elements during the project.
The Sabathé cycle is a cycle for heat engines in which combustion takes place partly at constant pressure and partly at constant volume.
Comparison of the theoretical cycles of an internal combustion engine. Graph analysis and analysis between the diesel cycle, the otto cycle and Sabathé cycle.
The Atkinson cycle engine is a type of heat engine. It works like the Otto cycle but with a small difference that improves performance.
By operating cycle of a thermal engine we understand the succession of operations that the active fluid executes in the cylinder and repeats periodically. The duration of the operating cycle is measured by the number of strokes made by the piston to complete it.
The most important elements of internal combustion engines. Fixed elements: block, cylinder head, crankcase. Moving elements: piston, connecting rod, crankshaft and flywheel.
The piston allows converting a linear movement into a circular movement. The pistons have a basic function in alternative engines as diesel cycle as in Otto cycle.
A spark plug is an electrical device that fits into the cylinder head of some internal combustion engines and ignites compressed gasoline by means of an electrical spark.
The displacement of an engine is the volume described by the piston between the bottom dead center and the top dead center. The power depends on the displacement.
The cylinder head serves as a watertight cover for the cylinders. It houses all or part of the combustion chamber, except in the case that it is formed in the piston head.
The crankshaft is the power transmission shaft that acts as a crank for the crank-crank assembly. Its function is to transform alternative movements into rotational movements.
The carburetor is the device that makes the air-fuel mixture in gasoline engines.
The bench is a generally metallic piece that supports a set of elements, whether mechanical or electrical. The function of the bench is to support moving parts.
A butterfly valve is a device for regulating or interrupting the flow of a fluid in a conducteaugmentant or reducing the section of passage.
The fuel has the energy that the thermal motors extract to be able to work. Fuel is a substance that can release energy during certain processes, which can be used for technical purposes.
Diesel oil is a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons, obtained by fractional distillation of crude oil and used as fuel for diesel engines, for heating or for the production of electricity.
Gasoline is a derivative of petronli commonly used as fuel for thermal engines. Components that are part of the gasoline.
An oil refinery is an industrial plant, of the oil raw material by purification and distillation under normal pressure and under vacuum in fractions with a defined boiling range transferred.
A steam engine is a device that produces mechanical energy using steam. It transforms thermal energy into mechanical energy.
- Types of Steam Engines
Steam machines can be classified into these two types. Plunger machines and steam turbine machines, developed a posteriori.
The main use of steam engines has been as a source of mechanical energy in industry. Currently, they are used to generate electricity.
- Transport Uses
The transport uses of steam engine are the steam machines that involve a displacement. These are applications designed to transport goods or people or to perform agricultural functions.
Working steam machines with pressure vessels that store fluids with a very high potential energy. With what is important to analyze and establish security systems.
How the steam engine was invented, historical evolution of the steam engine. Experiments and construction of the first steam engines.
- James Watt
James Watt was a Scottish mathematician, engineer and inventor. His inventions were of great importance for the development of the thermal engine and the steam engine.
Vapor to a substance in the gas phase that is at a temperature lower than the critical point. Importance of steam for human life.
The electric motor is a machine that transforms electrical energy into mechanical energy. Electric motors can be direct current or alternating current.
- Types of Electric Motors
The classic division is between DC and AC motors. They can also be classified by asynchronous motors, synchronous motors or DC motors.
- Alternating Current Motors
Alternating current motors are electric motors that are powered by this type of alternating current. convert electrical energy into mechanical energy.
- Synchronous Motor
Synchronous motors are a type of alternating current electric motor. Its speed is constant and depends on the frequency of the voltage.
An asynchronous or induction motor is an electric motor whose speed of rotation of the rotor is different from that of the magnetic field of the stator.
- Squirrel Cage Rotor
A squirrel-cage rotor is the rotating part of the common squirrel-cage induction motor. The squirrel-cage motor is a type of AC motor.
The direct current electric motor transforms electrical energy in the form of direct current into mechanical energy of rotation through electromagnetic interactions.
- How Does It Work
Basic explanation of the operation of a direct current electric motor. Arrangement of magnets and flow of electric current.
The series motor is one types of direct current motor. It is characterized by having a high moment of rotation at startup and its speeds very variable depending on the load.
A linear motor is an electric motor developed so that instead of generating a rotating torque it generates a linear displacement. It is used in trains.
The universal motor is a type of electric motor that can run on direct or alternating current. It is generally used in portable machine tools.
- Universal Motor Operation
The universal motor of the single-phase series is an electric motor that can be operated without changes with direct and alternating current. We analyze the operating principles.
The motor consists of a rotating part, a rotor and a fixed part, a stator. Know the composition and parts of the different types of electric motors.
The rotor is the component that rotates in an electrical machine. Together with the stator, they form the fundamental assembly for power transmission.
The stator is the fixed part of an electrical machine. The moving part of an electric motor is called a rotor. The stator can act like a magnet to produce movement.
A commutator is a rotary electrical switch in certain types of electric motors and electric generators that periodically changes the direction of the current.
The armature is the part of an electrical machine, magnetically coupled to the inductor, where an electromotive force is generated by induction.
The conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy by means of electro-magnetism was demonstrated by the British scientist Michael Faraday. The first commutative DC motor was invented in 1832 by William Sturgeon.
The Stirling engine is a heat engine designed to compete with the steam engine. In practice it was used for domestic applications and for low power motors.
- Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages and disadvantages of the Stirling engine compared to internal combustion engines. Comparison with otto petrol and diesel alternative engines.
Analysis of the ideal cycle of a Strirling engine. Comparison with the real cycle. Volume pressure diagram. Main characteristics that differentiate the real cycle of the ideal cycle.
Stirling engine applications can be divided into three main categories: mechanical propulsion, heating and cooling, electrical generation systems.
Stirling engine travel in history. From its beginnings as an alternative to the steam engine until the appearance of electronics.
Block related to the world of the motor from an educational and entertaining point of view. Articles of analysis, evaluation and opinion on thermal and electric motors.
- Types of Engines
Classification and description of the types of engines. Internal and external combustion heat engines. Electric motors. Power motors and non-thermal motors.
- Physical Power Motor
The so-called physical power motors are motors that take advantage of the kinetic energy or the potential energy of some element. The pneumatic motor and the hydraulic motor are physical power motors.
Thermodynamics studies the movement of heat between a physical system. This study is determined by the laws of thermodynamics.
- Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
The zeroth law of thermodynamics is defined as: Two systems in thermal equilibrium with a third are in equilibrium with each other
The first law of thermodynamics is a formulation of the principle of conservation of energy and states that the internal energy of an isolated thermodynamic system is constant.
The second law of thermodynamics is a principle of classical thermodynamics that establishes the irreversibility of many thermodynamic events, such as the passage of heat from a hot body to a cold one.
The third principle of thermodynamics, sometimes called Nernst's theorem, relates the entropy and the temperature of a physical system.
Entropy is a physical quantity for a thermodynamic system in equilibrium. It measures the number of microstates compatible with the equilibrium macrostate, it can also be said that it measures the degree of organization of the system, or that it is the reason for an increase between internal energy as opposed to an increase in the temperature of the system.
The thermodynamic transformation is a process by which a thermodynamic system passes from a state of thermodynamic equilibrium to another. A system is in equilibrium when the main variables of the system remain constant.
Chemical thermodynamics is the study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or physical changes of state within the limits of the laws of thermodynamics.
Heat energy is the form of energy that any body with a temperature above absolute zero possesses. All thermal energy can be converted into mechanical energy
Mechanical energy is the sum of potential energy and kinetic energy. This energy is associated with the movement and position of an object.
The pascal is a unit used to measure internal pressure, mechanical stress, Young's modulus and tensile strength. It is defined as a newton per square meter.
Cogeneration is the process of simultaneous production of mechanical energy and heat. The heat can be used to heat buildings and / or in industry.
A boiler is a container, or a set of tubes, used to heat water or other fluid. To heat the liquid can be used various fuels such as diesel, coal, biomass, etc.
The engine is a machine capable of transforming a source of energy into a mechanical energy or mechanically continuous work, typically used in the field application purposes with the propulsion of various types of vehicles.
- How Does Electric Vehicle Work?
Electric vehicles are powered by one or more electric motors that are powered by the energy stored in a rechargeable battery.
Meet the high performance engines and start to notice energy savings but also in your economy. They are perfect for cars and factories.
Electric motors are increasingly common in vehicles especially because they allow more sustainable consumption.
A solar vehicle is a type of vehicle powered by an electric motor whose power comes from the photovoltaic solar energy that is obtained from solar panels installed in the vehicle body.
Electricity encompasses a set of phenomena related to electric charges. This term is also used to designate the branch of physics that studies electrical phenomena and their applications.
- Electric Current
Electric current is the flow of electric charge that passes through a material per unit of time.
Eddy currents are the currents induced in the masses of conductive metals that are immersed in a variable magnetic field or that, in motion, through a constant or variable magnetic field.