De-Motor is a site where we explain the most important elements of engine engineering in a way that you can understand. If you haven't found what you were looking for on the web, here is a list of all the pages we have published.
- Thermal Motors
Heat engines are a type of reciprocating engine. They use the thermal energy caused by the combustion of a fuel to convert it into mechanical energy.
- Types of Heat Engines
Thermal engines can be classified in different ways depending on various factors. Depending on the type of fuel, the operating cycles and 4 more variables.
- Electric Generator
An electric generator is a machine capable of converting a certain type of energy (mechanical, chemical, etc.) into electrical energy. Types of generators.
The compression ignition engine is a type of thermal engine. It is also called diesel engine. Its main characteristic is that the ignition of the fuel is done by increasing the pressure to raise the temperature.
Spark ignition is a type of thermal engine. The combustion of the fuel is caused by the spark generated by a spark plug.
Diesel engines are characterized by compression ignition. The fuel used is diesel. They can use cycles of 2 and 4 times.
- Theoretical Diesel Cycle
The theoretical cycle of the diesel engine. Study of the diagrams of the theoretical cycle and calculation of the performance of this type of thermal engines.
Between the real and theoretical diesel cycles there are differences and similarities in the form and in the values of pressures and temperatures. Differences that also appear in the otto cycle.
Diesel engines have several advantages over other internal combustion engines. Advantages related to the type of fuel and the type of fuel ignition.
The diesel engine was invented by Rudolf Diesel, in the year 1893. The idea of Diesel was to compress the air so strongly that the air temperature exceeded that of combustion.
- Rudolf Diesel
Rudolf Cristiano Karl Diesel was a German engineer. Diesel was the inventor of the high-performance combustion engine that bears his name, the diesel engine.
Otto or gasoline engines is a type of thermal engine that works by means of the otto cylinder. The ignition of the fuel is carried out by means of a spark. The most common are 4-stroke.
- Otto Cycle
The Otto cycle is the cycle by which the operation of the Otto engine or gasoline engine is governed. We study the phases of the theoretical Otto cycle and the performance of the ideal Otto cycle.
Analysis of the differences between the real Otto cycle and the theoretical Otto. Between both cycles there are substantial differences both in the form of the diagram and in the values of temperatures and pressures.
Main differences between diesel and gasoline engines. Difference in operating cycle, fuel input, different types of ignition. Weight differences.
Operating cycles of the thermal motors. Two-stroke and four-stroke engines. Study of the theoretical cycles and real cycles.
- 4-stroke Engine
The 4-stroke engines cycle is performed in 4 piston races. In a cycle of a motor of four two revolutions of the motor shaft are obtained.
- Thermal Performance
The performance of an engine is its ability to convert thermal energy into mechanical or work energy. Explanation in a 4-stroke engine.
We analyze the diagram of the pressures of a real cycle as a function of the angular displacement of the axis for a 4-stroke engine. Explanation of the internal state of the motor during the 4 phases of the cycle.
In 2-stroke engines, the cycle is carried out in two runs, so that the admission of the active fluid must be carried out during a fraction of the compression stroke, and the exhaust, during a fraction of the work stroke.
The theoretical cycles of endothermic motors are approximations to the real cycle. The most used cycles are: real cycle, air cycle, air-fuel cycle.
- Indicated Cycle
Indicated Cycle is the diagram to calculate the value of the forces acting on the motor organs. The indicated cycle allows to calculate the dimensioning of the motor elements during the project.
The Otto and Diesel cycles are very close in shape, to the point that they can be considered as a particular case of the mixed cycle. This theoretical cycle is known as Sabathé mixed cycle.
Comparison of the theoretical cycles of an internal combustion engine. Graph analysis and analysis between the diesel cycle, the otto cycle and Sabathé cycle.
The actual cycle of a thermal engine reflects the effective operating conditions of an engine. They are identified with the mean pressure diagram.
- Exam of the Indicated Diagram
Study of the indicated diagram of a thermal engine. By measuring the surface the indicated average pressure is obtained. With this information and combined with other elements you can obtain numerous data on the performance of a heat engine.
The Atkinson cycle engine is a type of alternative internal combustion engine. It is practically a common Otto cycle engine, but with a crank modified crank to obtain greater efficiency at the expense of a reduction in power.
By operating cycle of a thermal engine we understand the succession of operations that the active fluid executes in the cylinder and repeats periodically. The duration of the operating cycle is measured by the number of strokes made by the piston to complete it.
The most important elements of internal combustion engines. Fixed elements: block, cylinder head, crankcase. Moving elements: piston, connecting rod, crankshaft and flywheel.
The piston allows converting a linear movement into a circular movement. The pistons have a basic function in alternative engines as diesel cycle as in Otto cycle.
A spark plug is an electrical device that fits in the butt of some internal combustion engines and ignites compressed gasoline by means of an electric spark.
The cylinder of a motor is the enclosure by which a piston moves. The power of an engine is determined by the number of cylinders and their volume.
The cylinder head serves as a watertight cover for the cylinders. It houses all or part of the combustion chamber, except in the case that it is formed in the piston head.
The crankshaft is the power transmission shaft that acts as a crank for the crank-crank assembly. Its function is to transform alternative movements into rotational movements.
The carburetor is the device that makes the air-fuel mixture in gasoline engines.
The bench is a generally metallic piece that supports a set of elements, whether mechanical or electrical. The function of the bench is to support moving parts.
A butterfly valve is a device for regulating or interrupting the flow of a fluid in a conducteaugmentant or reducing the section of passage.
The fuel has the energy that the thermal motors extract to be able to work. Fuel is a substance that can release energy during certain processes, which can be used for technical purposes.
Diesel oil is a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons, obtained by fractional distillation of crude oil and used as fuel for diesel engines, for heating or for the production of electricity.
Gasoline is a derivative of petronli commonly used as fuel for thermal engines. Components that are part of the gasoline.
An oil refinery is an industrial plant, of the oil raw material by purification and distillation under normal pressure and under vacuum in fractions with a defined boiling range transferred.
A steam engine is a device that produces mechanical energy using steam. It transforms thermal energy into mechanical energy.
- Types of Steam Engines
Steam machines can be classified into these two types. Plunger machines and steam turbine machines, developed a posteriori.
The main use of steam engines has been as a source of mechanical energy in industry. Currently, they are used to generate electricity.
- Transport Uses
The transport uses of steam engine are the steam machines that involve a displacement. These are applications designed to transport goods or people or to perform agricultural functions.
Working steam machines with pressure vessels that store fluids with a very high potential energy. With what is important to analyze and establish security systems.
At what time begins to use water vapor to trigger mechanisms. Construction of the first steam machines.
- James Watt
James Watt was a Scottish mathematician, engineer and inventor. His inventions were of great importance for the development of the thermal engine and the steam engine.
Vapor to a substance in the gas phase that is at a lower temperature than the critical point. But not all gases are steam.
The electric motor is a machine that transforms electrical energy into mechanical energy. The electric motors can be direct current or alternating current.
- Types of Electric Motors
The classic division is between DC and AC motors. They can also be classified by asynchronous motors, synchronous motors or DC motors.
- Altern Current Motor
Altern current motors are electric motors that are powered by this type of alternating current. convert electrical energy into mechanical energy.
- Synchronous Motor
Synchronous motors are a type of electric AC motor. Its speed is constant and depends on the frequency of the voltage and the number of pairs of poles of the motor.
An asynchronous motor is an electric motor powered by alternating current. This type of engine is also known as an induction motor.
- Squirrel Cage Rotor
A squirrel-cage rotor is the rotating part of the common squirrel-cage induction motor. The squirrel-cage motor is a type of AC motor.
The direct current electric motor transforms electrical energy in the form of direct current into mechanical energy of rotation through electromagnetic interactions.
- How Does It Work
Basic scheme of the operation of an electric motor of direct current. Arrangement of magnets and flow of electric current.
The series motor is one types of direct current motor. It is characterized by having a high moment of rotation at startup and its speeds very variable depending on the load.
A linear motor is an asynchronous electric motor that has been developed so that instead of generating a rotating torque it generates a linear displacement.
The universal motor is a type of electric motor that can be operated with direct or alternating current. It is generally used in portable machine tools.
- Universal Motor Operation
The universal motor of the single-phase series is an electric motor that can be operated without changes with direct and alternating current. We analyze the operating principles.
Advantages of electric motors versus thermal motors.
The motor consists of a rotating part, a rotor and a fixed part, a stator. Know the composition and parts of the different types of electric motors.
The rotor is the component that turns on an electric machine. Together with the stator, they form the fundamental set for power transmission.
The stator is the fixed part of an electric machine. The moving part of an electric motor is called a rotor. The stator can act like a magnet to produce movement.
A commutator is a rotary electrical switch in certain types of electric motors and electric generators that periodically changes the direction of the current.
The galvanic cell is a device consisting of two different metals connected by means of a salt bridge or a porous disk located between each half cell.
The armature is the part of an electric machine, magnetically coupled to the inductor, where an electromotive force is generated by induction.
The conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy by means of electro-magnetism was demonstrated by the British scientist Michael Faraday. The first commutative DC motor was invented in 1832 by William Sturgeon.
The Stirling engine is a heat engine designed to compete with the steam engine. In practice it was used for domestic applications and for low power motors.
- Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages and disadvantages of the Stirling engine compared to internal combustion engines. Comparison with otto petrol and diesel alternative engines.
Analysis of the ideal cycle of a Strirling engine. Comparison with the real cycle. Volume pressure diagram. Main characteristics that differentiate the real cycle of the ideal cycle.
Stirling engine applications can be divided into three main categories: mechanical propulsion, heating and cooling, electrical generation systems.
Stirling engine travel in history. From its beginnings as an alternative to the steam engine until the appearance of electronics.
Electricity encompasses a set of phenomena related to electric charges. This term is also used to designate the branch of physics that studies electrical phenomena and their applications.
- Electric Current
Electric current is the flow of electric charge that passes through a material per unit of time.
- Direct Current
Direct current is a type of electric current where the direction of circulation of the electric charge flow does not vary. The charge flow occurs through a conductor.
Alternating current is a type of electric current characterized by changing over time, either in intensity or in direction, at regular intervals.
A three-phase system consists of three single-phase alternating currents of the same frequency and amplitude with a certain phase difference between them.
An electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by the flow of an electric current.
The electron is a subatomic particle with a negative electric charge that is believed to be an elementary particle. Electrons are components of atoms.
Eddy currents are the currents induced in masses of conducting metal that are immersed in a variable magnetic field or that, in motion, through a constant or variable magnetic field.
Joule's law is a physical law that expresses the relationship between the heat generated and the electrical current that passes through a conductor over time.
Block related to the world of the motor from an educational and entertaining point of view. Articles of analysis, evaluation and opinion on thermal and electric motors.
- Types of Engines
Classification and description of the types of engines. Internal and external combustion heat engines. Electric motors. Power motors and non-thermal motors.
- Alternative Motor
The reciprocating motor or piston motor uses the reciprocating motion of one or more pistons to convert pressure into a working fluid, usually in the form of rotational motion.
- Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages and disadvantages of the new developments of alternative engines. Its advantages have allowed a rapid development but these characteristics also have certain drawbacks.
Different classifications of the alternative engines can be established depending on the criteria to be followed. Classification depends on the cylinder capacity, the cylinder arrangement, the compression ratio, the diameter and stroke ratio, and the number of cycles.
The history of the alternative engine starts in China 1800 years ago with the construction of a machine with a connecting rod. Later, the piston engine appears with the steam engine, the stirling engine and the internal combustion engines.
The so-called physical power motors are motors that take advantage of the kinetic energy or the potential energy of some element. The pneumatic motor and the hydraulic motor are physical power motors.
Thermodynamics studies the movement of heat between a physical system. This study is determined by the laws of thermodynamics.
- Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
The zeroth law of thermodynamics is defined as: Two systems in thermal equilibrium with a third are in equilibrium with each other
The first law of thermodynamics is a formulation of the principle of conservation of energy and states that the internal energy of an isolated thermodynamic system is constant.
The second law of thermodynamics is a principle of classical thermodynamics that establishes the irreversibility of many thermodynamic events, such as the passage of heat from a hot body to a cold one.
The third principle of thermodynamics, sometimes called Nernst's theorem, relates the entropy and the temperature of a physical system.
Entropy is a physical quantity for a thermodynamic system in equilibrium. It measures the number of microstates compatible with the equilibrium macrostate, it can also be said that it measures the degree of organization of the system, or that it is the reason for an increase between internal energy as opposed to an increase in the temperature of the system.
The thermodynamic transformation is a process by which a thermodynamic system passes from a state of thermodynamic equilibrium to another. A system is in equilibrium when the main variables of the system remain constant.
Chemical thermodynamics is the study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or physical changes of state within the limits of the laws of thermodynamics.
Heat energy is the form of energy that any body with a temperature above absolute zero possesses. All thermal energy can be converted into mechanical energy
What is pressure? Pressure is the physical magnitude that measures the instantaneous force on a surface unit, applied perpendicular to it.
- What Is a Pascal in Physics?
The pascal is a unit used to measure internal pressure, mechanical stress, Young's modulus and tensile strength. It is defined as a newton per square meter.
Mechanical energy is the sum of potential energy and kinetic energy. This energy is associated with the movement and position of an object.
Cogeneration is the process of simultaneous production of mechanical energy and heat. Heat can be used to heat buildings and / or in industry.
A boiler is a container, or a set of tubes, used to heat water or other fluid. To heat the liquid can be used various fuels such as diesel, coal, biomass, etc.
The engine is a machine capable of transforming a source of energy into a mechanical energy or mechanically continuous work, typically used in the field application purposes with the propulsion of various types of vehicles.
- Endothermic Engine
The endothermic engine is a type of alternative engine. It is also called internal combustion engine. The most popular types of endothermic engines are the Otto engine and the diesel engine.
Electric vehicles are powered by one or more electric motors that are powered by the energy stored in a rechargeable battery.
Meet the high performance engines and start to notice energy savings but also in your economy. They are perfect for cars and factories.
Electric motors are increasingly common in vehicles especially because they allow more sustainable consumption.
A solar vehicle is a type of vehicle powered by an electric motor whose power comes from the photovoltaic solar energy that is obtained from solar panels installed in the vehicle body.